Appling County Crop E News

Herbicides For Slash Pines

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♦   Herbaceous weed control (HWC) during the spring following planting slash pine seedlings can be critical to growth and survival on old-field, pasture, hayfield, and cut-over sites, particularly in droughty years.

♦   A four to six foot wide band is often as effective as a broadcast treatment.

♦   Wait at least one to two months after planting prior to over-the-top herbicide application to obtain best pine tolerance and growth response.

HERBICIDES FOR CONTROL OF BROADLEAF WEEDS AND GRASSES

(all treatments applied over-the-top of pines unless noted otherwise)

ARSENAL® AC (BASF; 53% imazapyr; 4 lb per gal)

♦   Very effective on perennial grasses, including difficult to control species like Bermudagrass, seedling Johnsongrass, and Panicums

♦   Weak on broadleaf weeds in the composite group (see Oust® XP®)

♦   Effective on established weeds

♦   Apply 4 – 6 fluid oz product per acre

♦   Do not add surfactant

♦   Imazapyr may cause severe slash pine stunting at excessive rates, ensure proper

sprayer calibration to apply precise herbicide rate per acre

♦   Optimum timing:  Early post to post emergence of weeds (April to May)

♦   Grass and broadleaf weed control including, but not limited to: bahiagrass, barnyardgrass, bluegrass (annual, Kentucky), Bermudagrass, crabgrass, fescue, foxtail, Italian ryegrass, Johnsongrass, lovegrass, panicums, sandbur, wild oats, witchgrass, camphorweed, carpetweed, chickweed, clovers, cocklebur, dandelion, dogfennel, horseweed, goldenrod, knotweed, lambsquarters, milkweed, ragweed (common, giant), pepperweed, pigweed, plantain, pokeweed, purslane, pusley (Florida), shepard’s purse, sowthistle, stinging nettle, annual spurge, sunflower, tansymustard, wild carrot, wild parsnip, wild turnip

OUST® XP® (DuPont; 75 % sulfometuron methyl)

♦   Very effective on a broad spectrum of broadleaf weeds, including composites

♦   Weak on perennial grasses including Bermudagrass, some panicums, and broomsedge species (see Arsenal® AC)

♦   1st Year plantings: apply 2-4 oz Oust  product per acre

♦   Optimum timing: Pre-emergence to early post emergence (March-April)

♦   Do not use Oust when soil pH > 6.2

♦   Grass & broadleaf control including, but not limited to: chickweed, crabgrass, dogfennel, fescue, fireweed (willowweed), goldenrod, horseweed, Kentucky bluegrass, nutsedge (yellow), Panicum (broadleaf), pokeweed, ragweed, shepherd’s purse, white snakeroot, yellow sweetclover, annual bluegrass, barnyardgrass, foxtail barley, foxtail fescue, Italian ryegrass, jointed goatgrass, bromes (red, ripgut), reed canarygrass, signalgrass, yellow foxtail, mustard, pepperweed, pigweed, sunflower, vetch, wild carrot, wild oats

LINEAGE® HWC (DuPont; 37.5% imazapyr + 28.1% sulfometuron methyl + 7.5% metsulfuron)

♦   Apply 5.3 oz product per acre

♦   Do not add surfactant

♦   Optimum timing is early post emergence (March – April)

♦   Very broad spectrum control of grasses and broadleaf weeds

♦   Imazapyr may cause excessive slash pine seedling stunting, ensure proper sprayer calibration to apply precise herbicide rates per acre

♦   See weeds controlled in Arsenal AC, Oust XP, and Escort XP sections

OUST® XP® (DuPont; 75% sulfometuron methyl) + VELPAR L® (DuPont; 25% hexazinone, 2 lb ai/gal) or OUST® XP® + VELPAR® DF (DuPont, 75% hexazinone)

♦   Broad spectrum weed control of broadleaf weeds and most grasses, weak on Bermudagrass, broomsedge, and some Panicums

♦   Hexazinone may cause pine seedling mortality on sandy sites, ensure proper calibration and follow label directions regarding appropriate rates for various soil types

♦   Apply 2-4 oz Oust product + VELPAR L 2 – 3 pints (or Velpar DF 10 – 16 oz product) per acre depending on soil texture (see product label)

♦   Optimum timing: Pre to early post emergence of weeds (March – early May)

♦   Do not use Oust when soil pH > 6.2. Use low rate of Oust + Velpar L or Velpar DF on coarse textured (sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam) soils and where soils are low in organic matter (see label)

♦   Grass & broadleaf control including, but not limited to: chickweed, crabgrass, dogfennel, fescue, fireweed (willowweed), goldenrod, horseweed, Kentucky bluegrass, nutsedge (yellow), Panicum (broadleaf), pokeweed, ragweed, shepherd’s purse, white snakeroot, yellow sweetclover. annual bluegrass, barnyardgrass, foxtail barley, foxtail fescue, Italian ryegrass, jointed goatgrass, bromes (red, ripgut), reed canarygrass, signalgrass, yellow foxtail, mustard, pepperweed, pigweed, sunflower, vetch, wild carrot, wild oats, asters, brackenfern, fleabane

OUSTAR®  (DuPont; 11.8% sulfometuron methyl and 63.2% hexazinone)

♦   Similar to Oust XP + Velpar products as above, but in a packaged mixture

♦   The ratio of active ingredients is set; hexazinone rate tends to be too high on sandy sites

♦   1st Year weed control application product rates per acre:

10-12 oz Course textured soils (sand, loamy sand, sandy loam)

12-16 oz Medium textured soils (loam, sandy clay loam, silt loam)

16-19 oz Fine textured soils (clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay loam, silty clay)

♦   After 1st year weed control application product rates per acre:

12-16 oz Course textured soils

16-19 oz Medium textured soils

18-24 oz Fine textured soils

♦   Do not use Oustar when soil pH > 6.2

♦   Optimum timing: Pre to early post emergence (March – early May)

♦   Grass & broadleaf control including, but not limited to: chickweed, crabgrass, dogfennel, fescue, fireweed (willowweed), goldenrod, horseweed, Kentucky bluegrass, nutsedge (yellow), Panicum (broadleaf), pokeweed, ragweed, shepherd’s purse, white snakeroot, yellow sweetclover

OUST® XP® + AATREX® 4L (Syngenta; 42.6% atrazine)

♦   Apply 2-4 oz Oust product + 4-8 pints Aatrex 4L product per acre (lower rate on coarse textured soils and higher rate on medium to fine textured soils)

♦   Pre to early post emergence weeds <1.5″ tall over dormant pines in early spring

♦   For grass & broadleaf weed control including plants listed by Oust XP as well as: barnyardgrass*, giant foxtail*, green foxtail*, large (hairy) crabgrass*, wild oats, witchgrass*, yellow foxtail*, cocklebur*, groundcherry, jimsonweed, lambsquarters, annual morningglory, mustards, nightshade, pigweed, purslane, ragweed, sicklepod*, velvetleaf (buttonweed)* using Attrex 4L.

* indicates partial control using Attrex 4L

OUST® EXTRA (DuPont; 56.25 % sulfometuron methyl + 15% metsulfuron methyl)

♦   Apply 2 2/3 to 3 oz Oust Extra product per acre

♦   Pre to early post emergence

♦   Note Escort XP + Oust XP for plants controlled

ESCORT® XP® (DuPont; 60% metsulfuron methyl)

♦   Apply 1/3 – 2 oz Escort XP product

♦   Pre to early post emergence

♦   Blackberry control + broadleaf weeds & grasses; annual sowthistle, aster, bahiagrass, beebalm, bittercress, bitter sneezeweed, blackberry, blackeyed-susan, blue mustard, bull thistle, buttercup, chicory, cocklebur, common chickweed, common groundsel, common purslane, common yarrow, common sunflower, conical catchfly, corn cockle, crown vetch, curly dock, dandelion, dewberry, dogfennel, false chamomile, fiddleneck tarweed, field pennycress, garlic mustard, goldenrod, henbit, honeysuckle, multiflora rose and other wild roses, lambsquarters, lettuce (miners, wild), marestail/horseweed*, maximilian sunflower, mustard (transy-, treacle, wild), oxeye daisy, Pennsylvania smartweed, plantain, pigweed (redstem, smooth), plumless thistle, prostate knotweed, redstem filaree, sericea lespedeza, sheperd’s purse, silky crazyweed (locoweed), falseflax, sweet clover, tansy ragwort, teasel, wild carrot, wild garlic, woolly croton, wood sorrel, yankeeweed.

* Certain biotypes of marestail/horseweed are less sensitive to Escort XP.

OUST® EXTRA + ARSENAL® AC

♦   Apply 2 oz Oust Extra + 4 oz Arsenal product per acre

♦   Early post to post emergence

♦   Imazapyr may cause severe slash pine stunting at excessive rates, ensure proper

sprayer calibration to apply precise herbicide rate per acre

♦   Refer to list of plants controlled for Escort XP and Arsenal

ESCORT XP + VELPAR L or VELPAR DF

♦   Apply ½ – 1.0 oz Escort XP product + Velpar L or Velpar DF product (see label for specific VELPAR rates) per acre

♦   Early post to post emergence

♦   Blackberry control + broadleaf weeds and grasses (refer to Escort and Velpar for lists of plants controlled)

VELPAR DF (DuPont; 75% hexazinone)

♦   May cause mortality where excessive rates are applied on sandy soils, ensure proper sprayer calibration to apply precise herbicide rate per acre, following label recommendations regarding specific herbicide rates for various soil types

♦   1st Year weed control application product rates per acre (the same amounts can be applied in years 2, 3, and 4):

1 1/3 lb Course textured soils (loamy sand, sandy loam)

1 1/3 – 1 ½ lb Medium textured soils (loam, sandy clay loam, silt, silt loam)

1 ½ – 1 4/5 lb Fine textured soils (sandy clay, silty clay loam, silty clay, clay, clay loam)

♦   Weed control application product rates per acre for established trees (≥ 4-yrs-old):

1 1/3 – 1 2/3 lb Course textured soils

1 2/3 – 2 1/3 lb Medium textured soils

2 1/3 – 2 2/3 lb Fine textured soils

♦   Optimum timing: Pre to early post emergence (March – early May)

♦   Grass & broadleaf control including, but not limited to: Asters, barnyardgrass, annual bluegrass, brackenfern, bromegrass, fleabane, foxtail, horseweed, ragweed, ryegrass

VELPAR L (DuPont; 25% Hexazinone)

♦   May cause mortality where excessive rates are applied on sandy soils, ensure proper sprayer calibration to apply precise herbicide rate per acre, following label recommendations regarding specific herbicide rates for various soil types

♦   1st Year weed control application product rates per acre (the same amounts can be applied in years 2, 3, and 4):

21 to 32 oz Course textured soils (loamy sand, sandy loam)

24 to 40 oz Medium textured soils (loam, sandy clay loam, silt, silt loam)

28 to 48 oz Fine textured soils (clay, clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay loam, silty clay)

♦   After 4th year weed control application product rates per acre:

21 to 40 oz Course textured soils

28 to 56 oz Medium textured soils

36 to 64 oz Fine textured soils

♦   Optimum timing: Pre to early post emergence (March – early May)

♦   Grass & broadleaf control including, but not limited to: Asters, barnyardgrass, annual bluegrass, brackenfern, bromegrass, fleabane, foxtail, horseweed, ragweed, ryegrass

Also consider:

(1) The herbicide purchaser and applicator need to look closely at the herbicide label to make sure that the herbicide product used is: (a) labeled for the particular use site (e.g. “for use in forest sites”, “for use in conifer plantations”, etc.) (b) labeled for the pine crop species (or genus in some cases), and (c) labeled for the particular application (“herbaceous weed control in pine plantations”, “ herbaceous release”, etc.).  Herbicide products, even those with the same trade name (such as “Roundup”),  may have different amounts of the active ingredient per gallon, so always follow the rates specified on the label of the particular container being used.

(2)  Remember rates are per acre treated.  Here are two examples of calculating the herbicide needed for a banded herbicide application using 10 oz Oustar product per acre treated, assuming 12 feet between the rows:  (a) spraying a 4 foot wide band, 10 oz Oustar will take care of 3 acres total land area.  In effect, one acre is banded and two acres are untreated, so herbicide is applied to one-third of the area.  A total of 400 oz (25 lbs) of Oustar would be needed for a 120 acre field where one-third the area is treated in bands.   (b) When spraying a 6 foot wide band on rows 12 feet apart, 10 oz Oustar will take care of 2 acres total land area.  One acre is banded and one acre is untreated, so herbicide is applied to half the area.  A total of 600 oz (37.5 lbs) of Oustar would be needed for a 120 acre field where herbicide is applied to one-half the area in bands.

(3) There are generics for some of the above listed herbicides and various product labels for the same active ingredient do vary.   Read the product labels to make sure that your intended use is consistent with labeling.

Please read and follow all label recommendations.  Inclusion of a product trade name or a company name in this publication does not constitute an endorsement of a product or a company, as other products manufactured by different companies might be equally suited for the intended herbicide use.

HERBICIDES FOR CONTROL OF ANNUAL & PERENNIAL GRASSES ONLY

(1) All grass control herbicides listed below are postemergence, foliar active herbicides.

(2) Best control for all grass species is obtained when grasses are in an early growth stage.  For Texas panicum, apply when the grass is less than 4 inches tall.  For Bermudagrass two applications are usually needed; the first when less than 6 inches tall and a second when re-growth is less than 4 inches.  Multiple applications are also needed for Johnsongrass.

(3) Herbicides in this group generally do not mix well with other herbicide products.  However, it is very important to add surfactants (wetting agents) to improve plant uptake.  See information below and product labels for details.

(4) Herbicide spray solution (water) volumes are typically between 10 to 20 gallons per sprayed acre (GPA) with a range 5-40 GPA; read label for specifics.

(5) Do not apply herbicides when pine seedlings and desirable grasses are under drought or other stress

(6) Do not apply herbicides when rainfall is expected within one hour.

ENVOY® PLUS (Valent; 12.6% clethodim, 0.97 lb clethodim per gallon, contains petroleum distillates)

♦   Apply 9 to 16 fluid oz per acre for annual grasses, 12 to 32 oz/acre for perennial grasses

♦   Add crop oil concentrate which contains at least 15% emulsifier at 1% volume/volume (1 qt per 25 gallons spray solution, but no less than 1 pint per acre) or non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% volume/volume (1 qt per 100 gallons)

♦   Apply in 10 to 40 gallons of water per acre

♦   Do not apply more than 64 oz/ac/ per season, make a minimum 14 day interval between applications, do not apply more than 32 oz/ac per application

FUSILADE® DX (Syngenta; 24.5% fluazifop-P-butyl, 2 lb per gallon fluazifop-P-butyl)

♦   Apply 16-24 fluid oz product per acre per application

♦   Use a lower dose for annual grasses, a higher dose for perennial grasses

♦   Add 1% crop oil concentrate (1quart per 25 gal) or 0.25% nonionic surfactant (1 quart per100 gal)

♦   Do not apply more than 72 fluid oz Fusilade DX per acre, per season

ARROW® 2EC (Makhteshim Agan of North America (MANA); 26.4% clethodim, 2.0 lbs

clethodim per gallon, contains petroleum distillates)

♦   Apply 6 to 8 fluid oz product per acre for annual grasses and 8 to 16 oz/acre for perennial grasses

♦   Add crop oil concentrate which contains at least 15% emulsifier at 1% volume/volume (1 qt per 25 gallons spray solution, but no less than 1 pint per acre) or non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% volume/volume (1 qt per 100 gallons)

WEED TOLERANCE TO SELECTED HERBICIDES

Herbicide  Weeds tolerant to the herbicide listed
ARSENAL sicklepod, tropic croton, blackberry, most legumes
AATREX Bermudagrass, lespedezia, Johnsongrass, broomsedge, blackberry
ARROW 2EC,  ENVOY Plus All broadleaf weeds
FUSILADE DX All broadleaf weeds
OUST bermudagrass, croton, Johnsongrass, trumpetcreeper, broomsedge
VELPAR bermudagrass, broomsedge, cocklebur, Johnsongrass, sicklepod, trumpetcreeper, morningglory

GRASS WEED RESPONSE TO HERBICIDES

WEED aFluazifop-P-butyl bClethodim
Perennial Grassesbermudagrass G – E G – E
Bahiagrass G
Johnsongrass (rhizome) E E
tall fescue F
nutsedge P P
Annual Grassesbroadleaf signalgrass E E
crowfootgrass F G
crabgrass F G
fall panicum G G
goosegrass F – G F – G
Johnsongrass (seedling) G – E E
sandbur G G – E
Texas panicum G – E G

E=Excellent (>90% control); G=Good(80-89% control); F=Fair(70-79% control); P=Poor(<70%). Citations: Guillebeau, P. (ed). 2005 & 2008. Georgia Pest Mgmt. Handbook. Special Bulletin 28. UGA Coop. Ext. Service. Athens, GA 30602. pp. 112, 156-57, 198-99. aFluazifop-P-butyl rating based on Fusilade DX trials, bClethodim ratings based on Select® and Arrow® trials.

Citation: Dickens, E.D. D.J. Moorhead, and P. Minogue.  2013 (Revised). Herbaceous weed control for planted slash pine sites. www.bugwood.org and www.forestproductivity.net  8  p.

Athens, Georgia  30602-2152