Lowndes – Echols Ag News

June Cotton Newsletter

Current Crop Condition (Whitaker and Freeman)

According to the June 4th 2018 USDA NASS Crop Progress Report, 72% of the estimated cotton acreage in Georgia has been planted. This is up slightly from lasts weeks 62% estimate and well below the five year average for this date of 84%.

 

Considerations for the Remainder of the Planting Season (Freeman) This spring has been especially challenging for cotton planting in many parts of the state. Dry weather early in the planting window followed by continual rainfall in the second half of May have delayed planting of over one third of the 2018 crop into June. Although yields tend to decreases as we move into June, there is still potential for strong, profitable yields. Listed below are some tips for managing a late planted crop.

  1. Consider increasing seeding rates. In late planting situations we want to shoot for a final plant stand of at least 2 plants/ft, so adjust seeding rates to aim for this desired plant population.
  2. Decrease any stresses. If irrigation is available, irrigate to promote stand establishment, enhance fruit retention, and eliminate stress during periods of dry weather.
  3. PGR’s. Mepiquat products should be applied to prevent excessive vegetative growth, decrease boll rot, and enhance fruit retention of lower position bolls which promotes crop earliness.
  4. Varieties. Varieties should be chosen on overall yield potential not maturity characteristics.
  5. Fertility. Decrease N rates by 25%-30% to limit excessive vegetative growth. This should be done with at-plant N and sidedress N.

 

For additional information regarding management of late planted cotton, please refer to the following article: http://www.ugacotton.com/2018/05/when-it-rains-it-pours-managing-late-planting-dates-in-georgia-during-2018/

 

Cotton weed control (Culpepper)

Weather has certainly challenged the management program. The intense and often overwhelming rainfall in recent weeks has greatly limited our ability to be timely with weed management programs throughout Georgia.  Below are a few discussion points to address common questions/concerns.

  1. Preemergence (PRE) herbicides in 2018 have been priceless providing excellent early-season control. Even after Palmer amaranth eventually emergences through the PRE herbicides, its growth has been slowed providing a more timely first POST application.  For growers who removed the PRE from their system…………..horrible decision.  As we move into June, the PRE herbicide is just as important as ever because weeds emerge and grow more quickly in June and July than in April or May.  As always, apply two active ingredients that are effective on Palmer amaranth and get the rates right for your soil type and production practice thereby avoiding cotton injury.

 

  1. Postemergence (POST) herbicides are currently preforming exceptionally well in controlling emerged weeds; including Roundup and our labeled dicamba and 2,4-D products. It is worth mentioning that the performance of Liberty was hampered in late May because of consistently cloudy weather but since the sun has returned to South Georgia the herbicide is back to performing as expected and occasionally a little better than expected.

 

  1. Pigweed is big in many fields so keep in mind a systems approach including sequential POST applications and a layby containing products like diuron offer the best opportunity for success. CRITICAL to success is the time interval between your two POST applications; intervals vary within a given technology.  Go to gaweed.com to view cotton weed management programs and intervals between POST applications (or call your extension agent)……….if you are off a few days between sequential POST applications it could have dramatic consequences.

 

  1. As mentioned above, herbicides are currently performing exceptionally well. Of course, that is good for weed control but it is not so great for cotton injury.  UGA research has consistently shown most cotton postemergence herbicide mixtures can cause twice as much injury when applied in saturated soil conditions as compared to ideal soil conditions.  Don’t forget that research suggests that it is best to avoid herbicide damage to cotton past the 8-leaf stage if any way possible……yes, use the layby rig!!

 

Cotton Insects (Roberts)

The question has been asked if we should manage insects differently in late planted cotton.  The answer is no, however we cannot afford to make any mistakes as mistakes will be costly.  A late planted crop will have limited time to effectively bloom and set harvestable bolls.  Cotton with a more extended effective bloom period may compensate and recover from some management mistakes (i.e. delays in maturity and/or lost fruiting positions).  Scout closely, use thresholds, and make good decisions with insecticide selection and timeliness of application.  It is likely that we will need to scout and manage June planted cotton until the end of September.  A few specific points to consider for insect pest you will likely encounter:

  1. Thrips are the most consistent and predictable insect pest of cotton. We are all familiar with the stunted growth and crinkled leaves associated with thrips feeding.  Excessive thrips damage will delay maturity up to 7-10 days which is unacceptable on late planted cotton.  Historically thrips infestations are low on June planted cotton.  Cotton planted in June also has rapid seedling growth which allows the plant to better tolerate feeding.  Don’t assume thrips injury will be low in your fields as delays in maturity could have significant impact on yield potential.
  2. Aphids will infest most cotton fields during June each year. Populations vary from year to year and even field to field.  We normally see aphid populations crash in July due to a naturally occurring fungus.  On late planted cotton aphids may infest cotton in the seedling stage.  Stress from aphid feeding on seedlings will slow development (delay maturity) which may limit yield potential of late planted cotton.
  3. Tarnished Plant Bug is a sporadic pest of cotton in Georgia. Plant bugs feed on small squares with needle-like mouthparts; damaged squares will be shed by the plant.  Plant bugs can be sampled with sweep nets or drop cloths.  Square retention should also be monitored.  Our goal is to retain at least 80 percent of first position squares when entering bloom.  Poor square retention will delay maturity and again have significant impact on yield potential of late planted cotton.
  4. Corn Earworm typically first infest cotton in mid-July. Corn earworm completes a generation in about four weeks.  In recent years there has been much discussion about corn earworm and erosion of efficacy with Bt cottons (this is especially true in the Mid-South and North Carolina.  Three gene Bt cottons are commercially available and will provide additional protection compared with two gene Bt cottons.  Bottom line is to scout and use thresholds and be timely with insecticides if needed regardless of technology used.
  5. Stink bug infestations are typically higher in June planted cotton compared with April and early May planted cotton. Scout and use thresholds.  Remember that the threshold is lower during the 3rd-5th week of bloom.

 

Planter Settings (Porter)

Proper planter settings are critical for acceptable stand establishment, this is especially critical during years with adverse conditions.  Very wet or very dry soil has a major impact on crop emergence.  Caution should be exercised when planting into very wet conditions.  From the planter mechanical perspective depth and downforce are most critical.  It is very important that you check that you are not placing the seeds any deeper than 1 inch.  Set this mechanically based on the planter manual and then check it in the field for all row units.  Sometimes you will find slight variability between rows.  Downforce should be reduced in very wet conditions compared to what you normally use.  The poundage should definitely be less than 100 lbs.  Check this in the manual on which slot to select if you have a spring downforce system, or set it utilizing your compressor or monitor if you have a more advanced system.  If you notice that your presswheels are leaving a trench or appear to be compacting the soil reduce the downforce.  This will cause problems with emergence and can cause crusting issues.  Studies performed at UGA have shown reductions of emergence of up to 50% for improper depth and downforce settings when compared to proper settings.  These problems are magnified when soil conditions are too wet.  Lack of stand early in the season or delayed emergence will lead to other issues later in the season, such as weed, pest, and disease problems.  These problems are translated to yield reductions at the end of the year.  Please contact your local UGA County Extension Agent if you have questions about your planter settings.

 

 

 

Fertility (Harris)

Replacing Nutrients Leached by May Rains

It seems like every time we get a lot of rain I hear people say “well, I guess I lost all my fertilizer”.  While nutrient leaching (nutrients dissolved in water moving downward out of the root zone of plants) is a legitimate concern, especially on our sandy Coastal Plain soils of South Georgia, this statement is not exactly true.  First, not all fertilizer nutrients are mobile in soil.  Phosphorous for example is usually considered immobile and most positively charged elements or cations, like calcium and magnesium adsorb to the cation exchange capacity of the soil and do not leach readily. Most micronutrients are held by organic matter and/or pH and do not move. Therefore, nitrogen, sulfur and boron are the most “mobile” in soil. Even then, they have to be in the right form, namely the negatively charged nitrate, sulfate or borate forms.  By the way, this is why most soil testing labs like UGA do not routinely test for nitrogen, sulfur and boron in soils.  They are considered “transient”, i.e. they can be there one day and (after a big rain) not be there the next. Oh, and what about potassium?  Potassium is more mobile than phosphorous but contrary to some current thinking, it is NOT as mobile as nitrogen, sulfur and boron.

So the next question is “how much fertilizer do I need to put back”?  There is no easy answer to this question because it depends on which nutrient, which form of nutrient, how much you put out, what soil type (i.e. how sandy) how much rain you got etc.  But let’s for example take the case of cotton fertilized in South Georgia before the heavy rains in May this year.  Hopefully most growers followed soil test recommendations and put about 30 pounds of nitrogen, 10 pounds of sulfur and the recommended P and K at planting.  The P didn’t move much at all, the K may have moved some but it is likely still where roots will get it eventually. So that leaves N and S.  Even if you lost half of your N and S you would only have to replace 15 pounds of N and 5 pounds of S.  This can easily be done at N sidedressing time between first square and first bloom. Boron can be foliar fed any time before first bloom. Our recommendation is for 0.5 lb B/a and can be tank mixed with herbicide or growth regulator sprays.  Bottom line is look to maybe sidedress on the earlier side, replace about 10-20 lbs N/a and include S with your sidedress N.

 

Fertilizing Late or June Planted Cotton – Reduce N Rates

Due to the heavy late-May rains, a higher percentage of Georgia cotton is going to be planted late, in June, this year.  The tendency is to think “hey its late, I need to rush this cotton so I am going to put higher rates of N out at planting”.  This is actually the opposite of what you should do!  While it is always important to get off to a good start, if you get off to TOO good of a start with extra N at planting, you could interfere with the “vegetative/reproductive” balance and reduce yields.  In other words, you want the plant to shift from vegetative (“growing stalk”)  to reproductive (flowering/fruiting) as quickly as possible (as early as 5 nodes) since there is not as much time to flower and put on fruit before frost.

So how much do I reduce my N rate by and when?  On page 76 of the UGA Cotton Production guide, it is recommended to reduce your total N rate by 25-30% .  It is not stated, but I would recommend taking some off of both preplant and sidedress applications if possible.  So instead of roughly 30 lb N/a at planting and 70 at sidedress for May planted cotton for a total of 100 lb N/a….consider 20 lb N/a at planting and 55 lb N/a sidedress for June planted cotton.  If you put out 30 lb N/a in early May before the rains and don’t plant until June, you still should have about 10-20 lb N/a available so could just plan on an early N sidedress.

 

Important Dates:

Scout Schools:

Tifton – June 11th – Tifton Campus Conference Center – RSVP Debbie Rutland (229) 386-3424

Midville – June 19th – Southeast Research and Education Center – RSVP Peyton Sapp (706) 554-2119

 

Field Days:

Midville – Southeast Research and Education Center – August 15th

 

 

 

For more information on any of the discussed topics please contact your local UGA Extension Agent.

Watermelon Research Field Day

2018 UGA Watermelon Research Field Day in Cordele

 

The demonstration trial evaluates the effects of fumigation and fungicide for management of Fusarium wilt in watermelon.

 

Details for the Field Day:

UGA Field Trial Site at Cordele, GA

Address. 1176 US Highway 280 W; Cordele, Georgia

Date: Thursday June 28th, 2018

Time: 9:30 a.m.

 

The Final “Using Pesticides Wisely” Classroom Training Opportunity for 2018!

All Georgia corn, cotton and soybean growers planning to use the new dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides, in-crop, must complete the required “Using Pesticides Wisely” training before applying Engenia, Enlist Duo, Enlist One, Fexapan or Xtendimax.

The Georgia Department of Agriculture and the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service will be hosting the final “Using Pesticides Wisely” training on Friday, June 1, 2018 from 10 a.m. – 12 p.m. See location details below:

Atlanta Farmers Market
Georgia Grown Welcome Center
16 Forest Parkway

Forest Park, GA 30297

If you are a corn, cotton or soybean producer and you have not completed the “Using Pesticides Wisely” training, this will be your final opportunity to fulfill this mandatory requirement for the 2018 growing season.

For more information, please contact the Ag Inputs Section of the Georgia Department of Agriculture at 404-656-4958, your local UGA Cooperative Extension office or visit www.agr.georgia.gov\24c.aspx.

Managing Scab Pressure/Leaf Roll Mites

UGA Pecan specialists Lenny Wells shares information on scab pressure and leaf roll mites. With 10 successive days of rain behind us and no relief in site and a potential tropical storm bearing down on us, pecan growers are under the gun for scab pressure right now. Most days have provided some breaks in the rain showers that have allowed growers to get out and spray at least a portion of their acreage. But, the question is what to spray with when growers can get into the orchard.

We are currently transitioning from worrying about leaf scab as the leaves should be hardening off soon to worrying about nut scab as the nuts begin the sizing period. One of the best materials to be using at this stage with the pressure we are having would be one of the DMI/Strobi mixes (Group 3 + Group 11) like Absolute or Quadris Top if  you have not used them 2 or 3 times already. The problem we are running into is that most growers are coming off of spraying this chemistry in their last couple of sprays. If this is the case, what should growers go to at this point?

The answer would largely depend on what has been used already but in the scenario above—if you have already used a couple of group 3 & 11 mixes—you have a few options. The right choice will probably depend on variety.

For moderately susceptible varieties like Sumner, Stuart, Schley, Oconee, etc. you could go with something like a 2 qt rate of Phosphite alone or a group 3 fungicide (Tebuconazol, Propiconazol, Tetraconazol, etc.) + either Phosphite or Tin

For highly susceptible varieties like Desirable, Pawnee, Caddo, Cunard, a better option would be something like 25 oz Elast and 1 qt of Phosphite.

Regardless of what you use, it is probably a good idea to tighten that spray window to 10 days minimum on scab susceptible varieties.

 

We have also had a number of calls about leaves curling at the edges a seen in the photo below:

This is a result of feeding by pecan leaf roll mite. Their feeding causes galls at the outer margin of the leaflet, which causes the edges to curl up and sometimes turn brown. This distorts the leaflet but does not usually cause defoliation. Most of the time this damage is only cosmetic and does not require treatment.

 

 

Downy Mildew of Cucumber Detected in South Georgia

By Bhabesh Dutta, Downy mildew of cucumber has been detected from the Brooks County, GA. These observations indicate that inoculum of downy mildew is currently in southern GA counties  and under favorable conditions  potential disease outbreak in other cucurbits  can occur. I would suggest our cucurbit growers to look for the downy mildew symptoms in their fields and start applying protective spray of below stated fungicides.

 

 

 

Watermelon: Rotation (foliar application)  with  Orondis ultra (provide protection against both Downy and P. capsici);

Elumin+Bravo/Manzate;

Ranman+Bravo/Manzate;

Previcur flex+Bravo/Manzate

 

Please do not use Bravo after fruit set.

 

Other cucurbits: Orondis opti;

Elumin+Bravo;

Ranman+Bravo

Previcur flex+Bravo

 

If Orondis was used as a soil application, please do not use it as foliar (use restriction according to label).

 

 

North Florida/South Georgia Cold Tolerant Citrus Workshop

UF/IFAS EXTENSION TAYLOR AND MADISON COUNTY

NORTH FLORIDA/SOUTH GEORGIA

COLD TOLERANT CITRUS

Sat. June 2,2018

PRODUCTION WORKSHOP

$25 REGISTRATION FEE

UF/IFAS Extension Taylor County • 203 Forest Park Drive • Perry Florida 32348

PLEASE REGISTER BY MAY 30

http://tinyurl.com/ColdTolerantCitrus

AGENDA
8:30–9am Registration
 

9am

Welcome – plan for the day

Mr. Dan Fenneman, UF/IFAS Extension Madison County CED

 

9:05am

Backing up your electric powered freeze protection

Mr. Arley Brillion, Mastery Engine Center, St. Petersburg Florida

 

9:30am

Automating your irrigation, fertigation and freeze protection with air and soil moisture sensors

Doug Crawford, BMP Logic, Trenton Florida

 

10am

Irrigation design for fertigation and chemigation

Dr. Charles Barrett UF/IFAS Suwannee Valley REC

10:30am BREAK – REFRESHMENT – VISIT DISPLAYS
 

11am

Selling citrus – how do I get paid

Mr. Adam Roe, W.G. Roe and Sons, Winter Haven Florida

 

11:30am

Latest innovations in freeze protection

Kim Jones, Bethel Oaks Farm, Monticello Florida and

Clay Lamar, 1 Dog Ventures, Georgia

12pm LUNCH PROVIDED
 

1:15pm

Tour of Grams Legacy Grove in Perry Florida

Andy Jackson

 

Questions? Contact

Clay Olson UF/IFAS Extension Taylor County

850-838-3508 cbolson@ufl.edu

Dan Fenneman UF/IFAS Extension Madison County

850-973-4138 dfenneman@ufl.edu

2018 Perennial Peanut Field Day

2018 Perennial Peanut Field Day
Thursday, May 31st, 2018
UF/IFAS NFREC
155 Research Road, Quincy, Florida 32351
Agenda
9:30 a.m. (EST) Registration begins
10:00 – 10:05 a.m. Welcome, Glen Aiken, NFREC director
10:05 – 10:20 a.m. Business Meeting, Steve Caruthers, PPPA President
10:20 – 10:40 a.m. “Perennial Peanut Roots: Getting to Know Your Neighbors,”
Victor Guerra
10:40 – 11:00 a.m. “Digging Deep, Perennial Peanut Belowground,”
Katie Cooley
Walk to perennial peanut research plots.
11:10 – 12:00 p.m. Field tours of ornamentals, diseases, and weed ID,
Sunny Liao, Ian Small, Gary Knox, Cheryl Mackowiak,
Brent Sellers, Doug Mayo, Jose Dubeux, and Ann Blount
12:00 – 12:45 p.m. Lunch
12:45 – 1:05 p.m. “Landscapes with Perennial Peanut,” Gary Knox,
Clay Olson, Jerry Stageman
1:05 – 1:30 p.m. “Soil Type and Grass Influences on Perennial Peanut,”
Cheryl Mackowiak
1:30 – 2:15 p.m. “Weed and Herbicide Update,” Brent Sellers
2:15 – 3:00 p.m. Producer panel discussion, wrap up and evaluation,
Moderated by Doug Mayo, Jackson County Extension
Director

The Impacts of China Trade Tariffs on Georgia Livestock Industry

By Levi Russell

China implemented a 25 percent increase in import tariffs on United States pork and is expected to increase import tariffs on United States beef products by 25 percent. However, unlike many row crops and other agricultural products, China is not a primary destination for United States meat products. Beef exports to China only resumed recently and there is not yet a significant amount of beef being produced in the United States that is exported to China. In 2017, the United States was the second largest pork producer after China, and the largest pork exporting country (USDA FAS, 2018b). Twenty-two percent of pork produced in the United States enters the export market (USDA FAS, 2018b). From January 2013 to January 2018, the USDA ERS reports that mainland China made up 7.5% of total United States pork exports, coming behind Mexico (29.3%), Japan (25.1%), Canada (10.4%), and South Korea (8.1%). Pork production is mainly concentrated in the Midwest and North Carolina, and Georgia is not in the major pork producing regions. The impact of the tariffs on pork will be minimal on Georgia’s agricultural industry. However, the reductions in pork prices could hurt some of the pork producers in Georgia. For beef and pork (and other meats), the NAFTA trade discussions are a far bigger concern than Chinese tariffs.

Short-term market fluctuations this year in both cattle and hog markets will almost certainly depend much more on rising supplies, domestic consumption, and exports to other countries than on Chinese tariffs. A recent report by the USDA FAS indicates that the reductions in exports to China will mostly be offset by the increases in shipments to Japan, Mexico, and the Philippines. Exports of both pork and beef from the United States are expected to rise this year, in part due to relatively low United States prices (USDA FAS, 2018a).

In the long term, however, these increased tariffs on pork and beef products constitute a missed opportunity, as China is the number one pork-consuming nation in the world. New sources of demand for United States producers are hard to come by and higher tariffs on beef and pork will likely result in increased production in other countries to fulfill China’s growing demand. This will put the United States at a competitive disadvantage in the long term if the tariff increases are put in place on United States beef and pork products.

 

References

USDA FAS. (2018a). Livestock and poultry: world markets and trade. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf.

USDA FAS. (2018b). Production, Supply and Distribution Database.  Retrieved April 25, 2018 https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/app/index.html#/app/advQuery

Lowndes Pecan Meeting

Lowndes Pecan Update Meeting

 

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Lowndes County Extension Office

12:00-2:00pm

 

Call 229-333-5185 by Friday, May 25, if you are attending so we can prepare for lunch and room set up.

 

12:00               Welcome

Mr. Jake Price

Lowndes County Extension

 

                        Lunch Served    

 

Word from sponsors

 

12:45               Pecan Updates         

 

Dr. Lenny Wells

Extension Pecan Specialist

Dr. Will Hudson

Extension Pecan Entomologist

Mr. Jason Brock

Extension Pecan Pathologist

 

Closing Comments

                       

                        Pesticide Credits

 

 

Plant Food Systems

Gary Veal (229) 425-1407

 

Miller Chemical

Darin Singleton   (229) 400-1194

 

Bayer Crop Science

                    Jake Ford – (229)-686-4203

 

 

 

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