Lowndes – Echols Ag News

Lowndes -Echols Production meetings Schedule

Vegetable Meeting 9:30 am 4-H Center

Lake Park

January 17, 2019 Dr. Stanley Culpepper

Dr. Bhabesh Dutta

Dr. Andre Silva

Dr. Stormy Sparks

Forage Meeting 6:30 pm 4-H Center

Lake Park

January 17, 2019 Lisa Baxter, UGA

Robby Bondurant, Westway Feed

Peanut Meeting 12:00 noon Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta January 24, 2019 Dr. Mark Abney

Dr Scott Monford

Cotton Meeting

 

6:00 pm Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta January 28, 2019 Dr. Glen Harris

Dr. Jared Whitaker

Row Crop Weed Control Meeting 6:00 pm Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta February 28, 2019 Dr. Stanley Culpepper

Dr. Eric Prostko

Row Crop Disease Meeting 12:00 noon Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta March 4, 2019 Dr. Bob Kemerite

Ag Forecast meetings

Published on 12/07/18

UGA CAES set to host annual Ag Forecast meetings

By Clint Thompson

Sam Pardue, dean of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), will serve as the keynote speaker at the upcoming Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series set for Jan. 22 through Feb. 1. The annual meetings allow UGA agricultural economists to address Georgia’s farmers, lenders and agribusiness leaders about the latest trends and economic conditions in Georgia’s No. 1 industry — agriculture.

At the seminar’s six locations across the state — Bainbridge, Carrollton, Lyons, Macon, Tifton and Watkinsville, Georgia — Pardue will discuss how CAES works with Georgia’s agricultural leaders and how the college works to help solve the issues facing rural Georgia.

“Perhaps more than ever, the Ag Forecast is needed to assist farmers, ranchers, agribusinesses and the organizations that support them to plan for the future,” Pardue said. “Uncertainty in weather, commodity prices, trade and access to markets, regulatory policy, and labor creates a challenging environment for Georgia producers. While we cannot predict the future, we can bring all the tools at our disposal to better inform our stakeholders in their decision-making processes.”

CAES hosts the Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series every year. Those interested in attending the seminars can register at georgiaagforecast.com. Economists from the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development and CAES Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics will present the economic outlook for Georgia’s producers with an emphasis on Georgia’s major commodities.

“Ag Forecast provides producers, bankers and agribusiness leaders with a glimpse of what will happen in 2019. It presents data on how conditions in Georgia, the United States and the globe will impact producers here in Georgia,” said Kent Wolfe, director of the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development.

Participants will have the opportunity to meet with UGA faculty and UGA Cooperative Extension agents and will leave the meeting with a copy of the 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast book. It provides detailed outlooks of the major commodities produced in Georgia from scientists who work on the crop year-round.

One topic that’s expected to be on the forefront is how Hurricane Michael will impact the future of Georgia agriculture. The storm devastated south Georgia agriculture on Oct. 10, 2018, causing more than $2.5 billion in crop losses. Since the hurricane moved through Georgia during harvest season, multiple crops were at extreme risk for damage.

“The impact from Hurricane Michael will undoubtedly be a hot topic because it impacted a number of commodities in the state with potential global implications,” Wolfe said.

Georgia’s cotton crop sustained between $550 and $600 million in losses, classified as immediate damage to commodities grown by Georgia producers. Pecans suffered $100 million in losses to its crop along with $260 million in losses to trees and $200 million in losses to future income. Other crop damages include $763 million in losses to timber, $20 million in losses to poultry houses, and $480 million in losses to vegetables.

The 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast series will be held:

  • Tuesday, Jan. 22: Macon, Georgia — Georgia Farm Bureau Building
  • Wednesday, Jan. 23: Carrollton, Georgia — Carroll County Ag Center
  • Friday, Jan. 25: Watkinsville, Georgia — Oconee County Civic Center
  • Tuesday, Jan. 29: Lyons, Georgia — Toombs County Agri-Center
  • Thursday, Jan. 31: Bainbridge, Georgia — Decatur County Agricultural Center
  • Friday, Feb. 1: Tifton, Georgia — Tifton Campus Conference Center

The Tifton seminar will begin at 7:30 a.m. with a breakfast buffet. All of the other seminars will begin at 10 a.m. and will be followed by a networking lunch.

The Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series is presented by UGA CAES and the Georgia Department of Agriculture. For more information on the 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast series, visit georgiaagforecast.com or search for #gaagforecast on social media.

Take Care of Your Christmas Tree

Doug Collins, Lee County Extension Coordinator

It’s that time of year again.  People are putting up Christmas trees.  Whether yours stays fresh until after Christmas, or turns into a needle-shedding fire hazard is up to you.

A cut Christmas tree is a living thing, or at least it was when it was cut.  As such, it is perishable.

The first step in making a tree last until after Christmas is to select one that is in good shape.  If you are buying a precut tree, gently grasp a branch on your prospective tree and pull your hand over the branch.  If needles come off in your hand, don’t take that tree home.

After purchasing the tree and before bringing it inside the house, bump the bottom of the trunk against a hard surface to knock loose needles off of the tree.  Then cut an inch off of the bottom of the trunk.  You see, after the tree has been cut for a while without being placed in water, a seal forms as the cut.  This seal will prevent your tree from taking up adequate amounts of water.

Place the tree in a stand with a water reservoir.  Check the water level hourly during the first day to make sure your tree has adequate water.  The first several hours after being put into water, your tree will be very thirsty and take up a lot of water.  If the water level falls below the cut, a seal will form as previously described and the trunk will need to be cut again.

Make sure all electrical equipment to be put on the tree is in good condition and that there is no worn or broken insulation on the lights.  Disconnect lights before going to bed.  Keep the house temperature as low as is comfortable.  Heat can dry out a tree.  Don’t allow pets or small children to climb or pull on the tree.  If small children are present, make sure that no dangerous ornaments are placed on the tree within their reach.

Keep the tree away from heat sources and open flames.  If the tree becomes dry and needles fall excessively, replace the tree with a new one.  As was done when the tree was purchased, gently grasp a branch on the tree and pull your hand over the branch.  If the needles come off in your hand, it is time for a new tree.  Have a safe and merry Christmas!

Cotton Losses From Hurricane Michael

Published on 10/31/18

UGA economists estimate up to $600 million in cotton damage from Hurricane Michael

By Clint Thompson for CAES News

University of Georgia agricultural economists believe that Georgia cotton farmers in the path of Hurricane Michael have only begun to feel the impact of the storm that took 90 or 100 percent of many area growers’ crops.

This week, Yangxuan Liu, assistant professor of agricultural and applied economics in the University of Georgia’s College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), and UGA Cooperative Extension agricultural economist Amanda Smith released preliminary cost estimates of Hurricane Michael’s damage to Georgia’s cotton industry.

Their initial estimates of farm gate value loss range from $550 million to $600 million. This includes losses related to cotton lint, cottonseed and reductions in fiber quality.

UGA’s estimated loss value for cotton is still preliminary. Updates will be provided as more data is collected, Liu said.

“We took into consideration yield loss variation across the state and adjusted our estimates accordingly,” she said.

“We are still in the process of gathering more data from cotton farmers and county agents.”

Because heavy rains and winds occurred when the bulk of Georgia’s cotton crop was at risk, Liu cautions farmers that quality issues may be a problem.

“Some harvested cotton modules in the field were damaged by wind and rain, which might degrade quality. The cotton harvested after the hurricane might face quality discounts as well, because more mature bolls of possibly higher quality were lost,” she said.

Liu cited U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that only 12 percent of Georgia’s cotton crop had been harvested prior to the storm’s arrival. Eighty-eight percent of cotton bolls were open and susceptible to the hurricane’s destructive winds.

Hurricane Michael’s path up through southwest Georgia significantly impacted the region that is responsible for some of the top cotton production in Georgia. Southwestern Georgia counties Colquitt, Crisp, Decatur, Dooly, Early, Mitchell and Worth were hit hard by the hurricane — and make up seven of the top-10 cotton-producing counties in the state, according to the USDA’s figures for 2017.

Cotton is the largest row crop in Georgia. According to the USDA, the farm gate value for Georgia-grown cotton and cottonseed in 2017 was $867 million with more than 1.2 million harvested acres.

Producers should contact their local UGA Extension agents to report any losses or for more information about estimating storm damage.

“The impact of Hurricane Michael will extend beyond the farm gate level. Cotton gins, local communities and the entire Georgia economy are likely to experience the ripple effect of Hurricane Michael for years to come,” said Jeff Dorfman, a professor of agricultural and applied economics at CAES.

For up-to-date information on Georgia’s cotton crop, see www.ugacotton.com.

Clint Thompson is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences based in Tifton.

Hurricane Harvest Decisions

Published on 10/09/18

UGA Extension advises harvest decisions amidst looming hurricane

By Laurel L Dunn, Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva for CAES News

Hurricanes, tropical storms and severe rainfall events are commonly seen among states in the Southeast U.S. These natural events most often occur during summer or early fall and may cause severe problems for urban and agricultural areas of Georgia. As of this week, it appears that we have another hurricane poised to strike Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension wants all of its agents — and the fruit, vegetable and nut growers they serve — to be as prepared as possible for the effects of the storm.

Agricultural areas, particularly where vegetables are grown, are severely impacted by flooding events that result from heavy precipitation. When the edible portion of a crop is contacted by flood waters, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) deems it “adulterated,” and the crop cannot be used as human or animal food. For this reason, the recommendation is to harvest vegetables and other edible products in advance of the rain, no matter the yield. As long as the total harvest costs are less than the delivered-in value of the produce at the processing plant or the packinghouse, harvesting is still profitable. In sum, harvesting decisions rest on determining an economic threshold for the grower.

Flooding is defined by the FDA as “the flowing or overflowing of a field with water outside a grower’s control.” Since chemical as well as microbial contamination is present in flood waters, there is no way to process fruits and vegetables that are contacted to make them safe again for consumption. If the crop field is flooded, but the water level is not high enough to touch the edible portion, a risk assessment may determine whether the product is likely contaminated or may be harvested. This includes crops that are still standing after the flood (e.g., tomato, bell pepper or eggplant) where the fruit is above the water level and too high for flood water to splash onto the product. Additionally, if the edible portion of the crop has not developed yet, the crop may be safe for future harvest.

UGA Extension specialists prepared a quick guide for Extension agents and growers to properly handle Hurricane Michael as it approaches:

Before an anticipated flood event:

  • Take inventory of and secure any chemicals and hazardous chemicals (e.g., herbicides, insecticides and fungicides).
  • Move any livestock, equipment or tools to elevated areas, preferably areas with no risk of flooding.
  • Use sand bags, berms or ditches and crosscuts to divert water around greenhouses, packinghouses, barns and produce fields.
  • Make copies of important documents and ensure that documents are stored in a secure, waterproof location, or take them with you in the event of evacuation.

 

After a flood event:

  • Contact your insurance agency before any clean-up activities, including salvaging crop fields where a portion of the produce was not contacted by flood water.
  • Clearly identify the highest point of flood water to make sure that contaminated product is not unintentionally mixed with “clean” product.
  • Harvest “clean” produce prior to handling nonharvestable produce to avoid cross-contamination of your produce.
  • If well heads were submerged, do not wash any harvested produce to avoid contamination. Test the water before any use.
  • Boil all water for personal consumption until test results indicate that no detectable generic Escherichia coli are present.
  • Take pictures of all damage immediately in order to send evidence to insurance agencies.
  • Allow a 60-day interval between flooding and replanting of previously flooded fields to allow for human pathogens to die off. Chemical hazards may still be present in previously flooded soils, so chemical and microbial soil testing should be considered prior to replanting.
  • Contact your UGA Extension agent if you are unsure whether produce can be safely harvested.

 

Remember, the more severe the rain, the higher the chance of contamination. For more information, see www.fda.gov and https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu

By Laurel L Dunn, Andre Luiz Biscaia Ribeiro da Silva for CAES News

Hurricanes, tropical storms and severe rainfall events are commonly seen among states in the Southeast U.S. These natural events most often occur during summer or early fall and may cause severe problems for urban and agricultural areas of Georgia. As of this week, it appears that we have another hurricane poised to strike Georgia. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension wants all of its agents — and the fruit, vegetable and nut growers they serve — to be as prepared as possible for the effects of the storm.

Agricultural areas, particularly where vegetables are grown, are severely impacted by flooding events that result from heavy precipitation. When the edible portion of a crop is contacted by flood waters, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) deems it “adulterated,” and the crop cannot be used as human or animal food. For this reason, the recommendation is to harvest vegetables and other edible products in advance of the rain, no matter the yield. As long as the total harvest costs are less than the delivered-in value of the produce at the processing plant or the packinghouse, harvesting is still profitable. In sum, harvesting decisions rest on determining an economic threshold for the grower.

Flooding is defined by the FDA as “the flowing or overflowing of a field with water outside a grower’s control.” Since chemical as well as microbial contamination is present in flood waters, there is no way to process fruits and vegetables that are contacted to make them safe again for consumption. If the crop field is flooded, but the water level is not high enough to touch the edible portion, a risk assessment may determine whether the product is likely contaminated or may be harvested. This includes crops that are still standing after the flood (e.g., tomato, bell pepper or eggplant) where the fruit is above the water level and too high for flood water to splash onto the product. Additionally, if the edible portion of the crop has not developed yet, the crop may be safe for future harvest.

UGA Extension specialists prepared a quick guide for Extension agents and growers to properly handle Hurricane Michael as it approaches:

Before an anticipated flood event:

  • Take inventory of and secure any chemicals and hazardous chemicals (e.g., herbicides, insecticides and fungicides).
  • Move any livestock, equipment or tools to elevated areas, preferably areas with no risk of flooding.
  • Use sand bags, berms or ditches and crosscuts to divert water around greenhouses, packinghouses, barns and produce fields.
  • Make copies of important documents and ensure that documents are stored in a secure, waterproof location, or take them with you in the event of evacuation.

 

After a flood event:

  • Contact your insurance agency before any clean-up activities, including salvaging crop fields where a portion of the produce was not contacted by flood water.
  • Clearly identify the highest point of flood water to make sure that contaminated product is not unintentionally mixed with “clean” product.
  • Harvest “clean” produce prior to handling nonharvestable produce to avoid cross-contamination of your produce.
  • If well heads were submerged, do not wash any harvested produce to avoid contamination. Test the water before any use.
  • Boil all water for personal consumption until test results indicate that no detectable generic Escherichia coli are present.
  • Take pictures of all damage immediately in order to send evidence to insurance agencies.
  • Allow a 60-day interval between flooding and replanting of previously flooded fields to allow for human pathogens to die off. Chemical hazards may still be present in previously flooded soils, so chemical and microbial soil testing should be considered prior to replanting.
  • Contact your UGA Extension agent if you are unsure whether produce can be safely harvested.

 

Remember, the more severe the rain, the higher the chance of contamination. For more information, see www.fda.gov and https://producesafetyalliance.cornell.edu

Cool-season wildlife food plots

By Jeremy Kichler

Colquitt County CEC

Winter annual crops can make excellent food plots for wildlife. Cool season grasses include wheat, oats, rye, and triticale.   Clovers can be planted in food plots in order to attract insects and produce seed for birds.

Soil Sample

One of the first things wildlife enthusiasts need to do is take a soil sample. A soil sample can tell us information such as pH and soil nutrients which is important in order to produce great looking food plots. When taking soil samples please take a representative sample of the plot. Take into consideration factors such as changes in soil type. Soil samples can be done by digging or using a soil probe (dig or probe down about 4 to 6 inches) from 10 to 20 locations in the food plot. Keep in mind, if soil pH is low then we can adjust this with a lime application.   Lime reacts slowly and needs to be applied two to the three months before food plot establishment. If you have questions about soil sampling please contact your local county Extension agent.

Fertilization

If you are trying to grow cool season annual grasses such as rye, wheat and oats in the food plot then consider 50 units of N applied at planting and another 50 units of N in late winter. If you are utilizing clovers and cool season grasses in the forage mix then consider 25 units of N at planting and another 25 units in late winter. If it is required to apply P and K on the food plot please do so at planting. If you are planting just clovers or other legumes for food plots then no nitrogen is needed. Remember to inoculate your clovers at planting to ensure proper nitrogen fixation during the season.

 Variety Selection

Select winter annual forage varieties that are on the recommended list can be found on the UGA Forages website (www.georgiaforages.com). Recommended varieties have consistently demonstrated above average yields in UGA variety trials. Other varieties may provide satisfactory yields, but might not have been consistent.

Below are recommended small grain forage varieties:

Clovers are real popular for food plots. According to UGA Forages, AU-Robin is a recommended crimson clover variety. Dixie would be an acceptable for plantings if AU-Robin is not available. Below is a table discussing the soil characteristics and management traits of selected cool season annual legumes.

Seeding Rates

A great resource I would suggest is the publication Planting Guide to Grasses and Legumes for Forage and Wildlife in Georgia

Seeding Depth

Planting depth can be challenge for food plot establishment. Small seeded clovers should not be planted deeper than ¼ to ½ inch deep. Plant small grain seed one to 1.5 inches deep for successful stand establishment. Ideally, small-seeded legumes should be planted using a cultipacker-seeder (prepared seedbeds only) or the small-seed box on a no-till or conventional drill. This provides the most accurate seeding rate control. However, the use of a no-till or conventional drill often results in small-seeded legumes being planted too deep (i.e., deeper than ½-inch). Some drills cannot be adequately adjusted to maintain a consistently shallow planting depth. Planting depth is harder to control when planting into wet soil, a soft seedbed or rough ground.

If these equipment or condition limitations exist, successful seed placement can occur if the seed are broadcast directly behind the drill’s shoes and in front of the press wheels. To do this, disconnect the tubes from the small seed box where it enters the drill’s shoes and secure the tubes behind the shoes or in front of the press wheels with wire or cable ties. This should allow the seed to be metered out on the soil surface, and the press wheels (with proper down-pressure) should firm the soil around the seed. This practice will ensure that the seeds are not planted too deep.

Accurately broadcasting small-seeded legumes (i.e., legumes with seeding rates less than eight to 10 lbs/acre) is difficult with large spinner-spreaders. If the available equipment cannot be adjusted to apply the low rate that is required, the inoculated seed can be mixed with coarse sand or some other inert material that is similar in size and weight. Smaller seeds should not be mixed with larger seeds in the hopper or seed boxes, since the small seeds will settle to the bottom. Also, legume seeds should not be mixed with fertilizer, since the fertilizer may kill the inoculant.

Broadcasted seed may not have sufficient seed-soil contact. Conventional-till seedbeds should be firmed with a cultipacker before seed are broadcast. Footprints left by an average person on a properly prepared seedbed should not be more than ¼-inch deep. Broadcast seeding on a prepared seedbed should be followed with adequate firming of the seedbed with a cultipacker.

If you have any questions about food plots, forages or soil sampling please contact your local county Extension agent.

 

Fall gardens need sun, good soil, Georgia-friendly plants

By Beverly Adams for CAES News

Temperatures are dropping, leaves are falling, and home gardeners are beginning to plan their fall vegetables.

If you’re new to food gardening, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension offers tips that should lead to a successful fall harvest.

Establish the garden in a location that receives full sunlight, from six to eight hours per day.

Prepare the soil before planting based on soil test recommendations. A laboratory soil test takes the guesswork out of determining whether the soil needs fertilizer or lime to nourish your fall garden crops.

To have your soil tested, visit the Extension website for directions on taking soil samples. Then bring your dry soil sample to your local Extension office with the $10 testing fee.

Plant fall vegetables on schedule and use varieties that are recommended for Georgia. For a list of recommended cultivars and planting dates, refer to UGA Extension Circular 963, “Vegetable Gardening in Georgia,” at extension.uga.edu/publications.

Control weeds, pest insects and diseases.

When Mother Nature does not supply rainfall, water your garden thoroughly at soil level.

And, as always, if you have any questions, contact your local Extension office at 1-800-ASK-UGA1 for advice.

Chinese Privet at Sanford Stadium

With college football kicking  off this weekend,  I have a little history on the hedges at Sanford Stadium

By Doug Collins, Lee County Extension Coordinator

Among the privets, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is the outlaw of the family.  Brought into the United States just shy of a decade before the start of the American Civil War, this plant has escaped from cultivation and become a noxious weed.  It is spread by birds and is common along roadsides and in woods.  It can thrive in shade or full sun.  One variety of this species is sold as a landscape plant.  Other than that, it is generally considered a nuisance.  In our climate, it is pretty much an evergreen.  In colder climates, it is deciduous.

Chinese privet has one claim to fame in Georgia.  The famed hedges in the University of Georgia’s Sanford Stadium are composed of Chinese privet plants.  When Sanford Stadium was built in the 1920’s, the business manager of the athletic association had been impressed with the rose bushes in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California and wanted to have something similar in UGA’s new stadium.  Rose bushes were deemed not to be the best choice for the Athens climate, so Chinese privet was planted.  The privet was reportedIy trucked into Athens from Atlanta as the result of a last-minute decision and planted by workers with shovels and flashlights just hours before the stadium’s inaugural game against Yale. I have heard a story that a species other than Chinese privet was originally planted and the Chinese privet later invaded and pushed out the previously planted plants.  I have found no documentation supporting this legend.

The hedges were removed in 1996 to allow Sanford Stadium to be used as a soccer venue for the 1996 Summer Olympics.  Before they were removed, cuttings were taken to propagate new plants so that the hedges could be restored after the Olympics.  Enough new plants were propagated so that some could be sold.  A fellow county agent bought one of these plants.  I kidded him for paying good money for a noxious weed.

Weed Science Update – August 21 (Prostko)

A couple of things you might find of interest:

1) A local crop consultant recently sent me this picture of prostrate globe amaranth (Gomphrena celosioides).  I have never seen this plant before and for the record, Dr. Mark “The Czar” Czarnota (UGA-Griffin Campus) identified it for me.  It is a member of the Amaranthaceae (pigweed) plant family.  For more general information about this weed, please refer to the following link: http://wssa.net/wp-content/uploads/Gomphrena-celosioides.pdf

2) Had a peanut grower ask me if 2,4-DB applied to large sicklepod plants would have any effect on seed production.  A quick review of the literature would suggest that 2,4-DB applications made at the initial flower to peak flower stages of growth will cause significant reductions in the number of sicklepod seed produced.  However, applications before or after that time have no effect on seed production (only initial flower and peak flower seed numbers were statisicially different than the NTC-none).

Reductions in Grass Control in 2018? (Prostko)

Getting plenty of calls about perceived reductions in grass control after applications of ACC-ase inhibiting herbicides, such as Select (clethodim) or Poast (sethoxydim), have been applied.  Some folks first reaction to this “lack” of control is that we suddenly have widespread ACC-ase resistance.  When its comes to the issue of resistance, I will never say never.  But, before traveling down that bumpy road, I would like for you and your growers to consider the following:

1) Currently, only 2 grass species have been “officially” confirmed to have evolved ACC-ase resistance in Georgia including large crabgrass and Italian ryegrass. Scientific confirmation of herbicide resistance takes lots of time, manpower, and greenhouse space.

2) Labeled heights for optimum control of various common grasses with Select, including crabgrass, Texas panicum crowfootgrass, and goosegrass, are 2″- 6″.  

3) The following is some data illustrating the effect of Select rate and timing on the control of goosegrass.  Please note that goosegrass control was reduced by 16-23%, depending upon rate, when applied at the 4-6 tiller stage of growth.

Figure 1.  Goosegrass control with Select applied at different rates and timings.

4) If Cadre (imazapic) was applied prior to the grass herbicide application, it is very likely that grass control will be reduced.   Research has shown that Cadre can reduce the photosynthetic rate of goosegrass which then reduces the sensitivity of the ACC-ase enzyme to clethodim (Burke and Wilcut.  2003.  Physiological basis for antagonism of clethodim by imazapic on goosegrass.  Pesticide Biochemistry & Physiology) 

5) At this time of the year, peanut plants are kinda tall (> 12″).  Thus, any grass plants peaking out of the top of the peanut canopy are not likely to be adequately controlled due to size and coverage issues.

6) Before dropping the R-bomb, please double-check use rates, stages of growth, adjuvants, rain-free periods, and field history.  The threat of herbicide resistance is definitely real but it does not happen in one night.