Lowndes – Echols Ag News

Yellow Nutsedge/Cadre Resistance

By Eric Prostko: In September 2017, after doing some preliminary screening (Figure 1), we collected yellow nutsedge tubers from a peanut field that were a strong suspect for resistance to Cadre (imazapic).  We sent the tubers to BASF for further greenhouse testing and just got back the results.  Unfortunately, it looks like this population of nutsedge has developed resistance to Cadre (Figures 2 and 3).  On the positive side, it does not appear to have developed cross-resistance to Sandea/Permit (halosulfuron).  In order to protect the grower’s privacy, I would prefer not to reveal the exact location of this field at this time.

Assuming adequate funding is obtained , I will be working very closely with our new teaching/research weed scientist on the main campus in Athens, Dr. Nick Basinger, to further investigate this issue.  Dr. Basinger recently replaced Dr. Bill Vencill.  If you are already aware of or become aware of peanut fields where Cadre has been used for yellow nutsedge control with less than optimum results, please let us know so that tubers can be collected from the field.   At this point in time though, I believe that this discovery of resistance is most likely an isolated case.

Here are a few things to consider in regards to this issue, especially how it compares to the herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth problems that we have been dealing with since 2004:

1) At this point in time, only 1 case of herbicide-resistance in yellow nutsedge has been officially confirmed world-wide.   In 2013-2014, researchers from Arkansas confirmed halosulfuron resistance in a yellow nutsedge population collected from a rice field.  For comparison, 61 cases of herbicide resistance in Palmer amaranth have been confirmed.

2) In Georgia, Cadre was first commercialized for use in peanut in 1996 so it took more than 20 years for this resistance to occur in yellow nutsedge.  It took roughly 3-4 years for glyphosate resistance to evolve in Palmer amaranth after the introduction of RR soybeans (1996) and RR cotton (1997).

3) The GA problem site is a dryland field where peanuts were grown for 5 continuous years and Cadre was used every year (for economic reasons).  This is atypical of the normal crop rotation sequences used by most Georgia peanut growers.  Unlike glyphosate, Liberty and PPO herbicides, Cadre is not applied to fields on a yearly basis.

4) Yellow nutsedge can produce a large amount of seed but seed is not the primary propagation mechanism.  Some research has shown that <1% of yellow nutsedge seeds can develop into viable seedlings.  Seed is the only propagation mechanism for Palmer amaranth.

5) The primary mechanism of  yellow nutsedge propagation is through tubers.  In Georgia, a single yellow nutsedge plant, growing without competition in a bareground area, produced 700 tubers after 6 months of growth.

6) The primary mechanism of yellow nutsedge tuber dispersion in fields is through normal field operations such as tillage/disking and equipment movement (i.e. human action).

7) Foraging and soil disturbance from feral hogs has been reported to promote the long-term population maintenance of yellow nutsedge.

8) There could be also be some slight dispersion from waterfowl that prefer yellow nutsedge tubers as a food source (i.e. ducks, geese).  However, a recently published study from Missouri reported that no intact nutsedge tubers were recovered from mallard ducks in 8 feeding trials.  In these same feeding trials, 26% of Palmer amaranth seeds were viable after feeding.

Figure 1.  Cadre and Sandea field screen on suspect resistant yellow nutsedge population in Georgia, 2017.
Figure 2.  Suspect resistant yellow nutsedge population treated with Cadre 2AS @ 32 oz/A (8X rate), 21 DAT.
Figure 3.  Susceptible yellow nutsedge population (left) and suspect resistant population (right) treated with various rates of Cadre 2AS – 28 DAT

XtendiMax, Engenia, and FeXapan New Regulations for 2019

1) A pesticide license is required to purchase or apply these products.

2) All applicators must be trained through UGA’s Using Pesticides Wisely (UPW).

3) Can only apply through 60 days after planting cotton or 45 days after planting soybeans.

4) Can only make up to 2 POST applications in cotton and soybeans.

5) Can only apply between 1 hour after sunrise and 2 hours before sunset (wind still has to be between 3 and 10 mph).

6) Updated record keeping within 72 hours and add planting date.

7) Labels suggest to test for spray solution pH and add a buffering agent if solution pH is less than 5.

8) Do not apply when wind is blowing in direction of sensitive crops and/or residential areas.

9) If there are no sensitive crops or residential areas downwind, then downwind buffers remain. 110 ft but there is a new 57 ft omni-directional (all sides) buffer required in certain counties where endangered terrestrial dicot plants grow (visit www.epa.gov/espp/ to understand if you have endangered species near you.

10) Do not apply if expected rainfall within 24 hours of application could exceed soil field capacity.

Enlist One and Enlist Duo

1) All persons in charge of application must be trained.

Georgia Forestry Commission Announces Debris Management Program to Include Pecan Orchards

By Lenny Wells: This is the best news I have heard for Georgia pecan growers since the Hurricane in October. On November 18, Governor Nathan Deal signed into law HB 1EX, which provides emergency disaster relief assistance for cleanup efforts for timberland  and pecan orchard land in the 28 counties included in the Hurricane Michael Disaster Area. The cost of debris management will be shared at a rate of 80 percent FDMP and 20 percent landowner with maximum payment limitations possible. Applications will be accepted by GFC from January 14, 2019 through February 11, 2019. Landowners may apply for funds retroactively. Approved applications will be notified in writing beginning February 25, 2019.

Contact your local Georgia Forestry Commission office or click on link below for details

Forest Debris Management Program

Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference

Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference set for Thursday, Jan. 17

Kelley Manufacturing Co. sponsors the Grand Door Prize

 

 

TIFTON, Ga.  — Producers can improve the bottom-line of their farming operation with knowledge, connections and information gained at the 43rd annual Georgia Peanut Farm Show and Conference, held at the University of Georgia Tifton Campus Conference Center, Jan. 17, 2019, from 8:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. Peanut farmers and those involved in the peanut industry will be able to learn more about the latest products, services and peanut research at the show, which is sponsored by the Georgia Peanut Commission.

The one-day show offers farmers a full day to view the products and services of more than 100 exhibitors and a day of education. A free luncheon begins at noon for all peanut farmers in attendance. The Georgia Peanut Commission will present a short program beginning at 12:15 p.m. that will cover award presentations and an update from the National Peanut Board and Washington. The Georgia Peanut Commission, in cooperation with the OneBlood, will host a blood drive from 8:30 a.m. to 2:30 p.m. during the show.

The University of Georgia Peanut Team will present an educational peanut production seminar from 9:00 until 10:30 a.m. Team members will provide information on peanut production tips and have a question and answer session with team members specializing in irrigation management, insects, disease and nematodes, weed management and economics. Farmers will also have the opportunity to earn private or commercial pesticide applicator certification.

An Industry Seed Seminar will also be held from 10:35 to 11:35 a.m. during the show. This event is sponsored by the American Peanut Shellers Association Committee on Variety & Seed Development, Southern Peanut Farmers Federation and the Georgia Peanut Commission. Growers will be able to learn about peanut varieties available for 2019 and varieties on the horizon.

During this year’s show, Kelley Manufacturing Co. is providing the Grand Door Prize Package of one season’s use of a new peanut combine (choice of four-row, six-row or combine with Unload-On-The-Go option). At the end of the 2019 season, the winner has the option of purchasing the combine from an authorized KMC dealer with $15,000 off the list price. Also, KMC is providing a second drawing for one season’s use of a new Digger Shaker Inverter (choice of rigid or flex model in a two-row, four-row or six-row) or the use of a new KMC Dump Cart. At the end of the 2019 season, the winner has the option of purchasing the digger or dump cart from an authorized KMC dealer with 10 percent off the list price.

Additionally, farmers can register to win the Grower Prize, donated by Amadas Industries. This prize includes a certificate good for the amount of $10,000.00 towards the purchase of any new Amadas self-propelled combine or $5,000 towards the purchase of a new four-row or six-row Amadas pull-type combine or $1,000 towards the purchase of a new Amadas peanut dump cart. Amadas is also offering a customized Grizzly cooler which will contain a certificate good for a parts credit of $1,000 for Amadas parts through a local authorized Amadas dealer.

The winners of the Grand Door Prize and the Grower Prize must be certified peanut farmers with an FSA farm number and present to win.

For more information on the show, contact GPC at 229-386-3470 or online at www.gapeanuts.com.

Lowndes -Echols Production meetings Schedule

Vegetable Meeting 9:30 am 4-H Center

Lake Park

January 17, 2019 Dr. Stanley Culpepper

Dr. Bhabesh Dutta

Dr. Andre Silva

Dr. Stormy Sparks

Forage Meeting 6:30 pm 4-H Center

Lake Park

January 17, 2019 Lisa Baxter, UGA

Robby Bondurant, Westway Feed

Peanut Meeting 12:00 noon Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta January 24, 2019 Dr. Mark Abney

Dr Scott Monford

Cotton Meeting

 

6:00 pm Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta January 28, 2019 Dr. Glen Harris

Dr. Jared Whitaker

Row Crop Weed Control Meeting 6:00 pm Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta February 28, 2019 Dr. Stanley Culpepper

Dr. Eric Prostko

Row Crop Disease Meeting 12:00 noon Lowndes Extension Office-Valdosta March 4, 2019 Dr. Bob Kemerite

Ag Forecast meetings

Published on 12/07/18

UGA CAES set to host annual Ag Forecast meetings

By Clint Thompson

Sam Pardue, dean of the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES), will serve as the keynote speaker at the upcoming Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series set for Jan. 22 through Feb. 1. The annual meetings allow UGA agricultural economists to address Georgia’s farmers, lenders and agribusiness leaders about the latest trends and economic conditions in Georgia’s No. 1 industry — agriculture.

At the seminar’s six locations across the state — Bainbridge, Carrollton, Lyons, Macon, Tifton and Watkinsville, Georgia — Pardue will discuss how CAES works with Georgia’s agricultural leaders and how the college works to help solve the issues facing rural Georgia.

“Perhaps more than ever, the Ag Forecast is needed to assist farmers, ranchers, agribusinesses and the organizations that support them to plan for the future,” Pardue said. “Uncertainty in weather, commodity prices, trade and access to markets, regulatory policy, and labor creates a challenging environment for Georgia producers. While we cannot predict the future, we can bring all the tools at our disposal to better inform our stakeholders in their decision-making processes.”

CAES hosts the Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series every year. Those interested in attending the seminars can register at georgiaagforecast.com. Economists from the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development and CAES Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics will present the economic outlook for Georgia’s producers with an emphasis on Georgia’s major commodities.

“Ag Forecast provides producers, bankers and agribusiness leaders with a glimpse of what will happen in 2019. It presents data on how conditions in Georgia, the United States and the globe will impact producers here in Georgia,” said Kent Wolfe, director of the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development.

Participants will have the opportunity to meet with UGA faculty and UGA Cooperative Extension agents and will leave the meeting with a copy of the 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast book. It provides detailed outlooks of the major commodities produced in Georgia from scientists who work on the crop year-round.

One topic that’s expected to be on the forefront is how Hurricane Michael will impact the future of Georgia agriculture. The storm devastated south Georgia agriculture on Oct. 10, 2018, causing more than $2.5 billion in crop losses. Since the hurricane moved through Georgia during harvest season, multiple crops were at extreme risk for damage.

“The impact from Hurricane Michael will undoubtedly be a hot topic because it impacted a number of commodities in the state with potential global implications,” Wolfe said.

Georgia’s cotton crop sustained between $550 and $600 million in losses, classified as immediate damage to commodities grown by Georgia producers. Pecans suffered $100 million in losses to its crop along with $260 million in losses to trees and $200 million in losses to future income. Other crop damages include $763 million in losses to timber, $20 million in losses to poultry houses, and $480 million in losses to vegetables.

The 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast series will be held:

  • Tuesday, Jan. 22: Macon, Georgia — Georgia Farm Bureau Building
  • Wednesday, Jan. 23: Carrollton, Georgia — Carroll County Ag Center
  • Friday, Jan. 25: Watkinsville, Georgia — Oconee County Civic Center
  • Tuesday, Jan. 29: Lyons, Georgia — Toombs County Agri-Center
  • Thursday, Jan. 31: Bainbridge, Georgia — Decatur County Agricultural Center
  • Friday, Feb. 1: Tifton, Georgia — Tifton Campus Conference Center

The Tifton seminar will begin at 7:30 a.m. with a breakfast buffet. All of the other seminars will begin at 10 a.m. and will be followed by a networking lunch.

The Georgia Ag Forecast seminar series is presented by UGA CAES and the Georgia Department of Agriculture. For more information on the 2019 Georgia Ag Forecast series, visit georgiaagforecast.com or search for #gaagforecast on social media.

Take Care of Your Christmas Tree

Doug Collins, Lee County Extension Coordinator

It’s that time of year again.  People are putting up Christmas trees.  Whether yours stays fresh until after Christmas, or turns into a needle-shedding fire hazard is up to you.

A cut Christmas tree is a living thing, or at least it was when it was cut.  As such, it is perishable.

The first step in making a tree last until after Christmas is to select one that is in good shape.  If you are buying a precut tree, gently grasp a branch on your prospective tree and pull your hand over the branch.  If needles come off in your hand, don’t take that tree home.

After purchasing the tree and before bringing it inside the house, bump the bottom of the trunk against a hard surface to knock loose needles off of the tree.  Then cut an inch off of the bottom of the trunk.  You see, after the tree has been cut for a while without being placed in water, a seal forms as the cut.  This seal will prevent your tree from taking up adequate amounts of water.

Place the tree in a stand with a water reservoir.  Check the water level hourly during the first day to make sure your tree has adequate water.  The first several hours after being put into water, your tree will be very thirsty and take up a lot of water.  If the water level falls below the cut, a seal will form as previously described and the trunk will need to be cut again.

Make sure all electrical equipment to be put on the tree is in good condition and that there is no worn or broken insulation on the lights.  Disconnect lights before going to bed.  Keep the house temperature as low as is comfortable.  Heat can dry out a tree.  Don’t allow pets or small children to climb or pull on the tree.  If small children are present, make sure that no dangerous ornaments are placed on the tree within their reach.

Keep the tree away from heat sources and open flames.  If the tree becomes dry and needles fall excessively, replace the tree with a new one.  As was done when the tree was purchased, gently grasp a branch on the tree and pull your hand over the branch.  If the needles come off in your hand, it is time for a new tree.  Have a safe and merry Christmas!

YOUNG CATTLEMEN’S WEBINAR SERIES

YOUNG CATTLEMEN’S WEBINAR SERIES

3-PART INDUSTRY TUTORIAL

DEC. 6, 2018 – 7PM

SUPPLEMENTING POOR QUALITY FORAGE IN SOUTHEASTERN COW/CALF SYSTEMS

BY: DR. JACOB SEGERS, UGA

DEC. 13, 2018 – 7PM

TIPS FROM A VETERAN: A BEGINNERS GUIDE TO FARM FINISHED BEEF

BY: DR. FRANCIS FLUHARTY, UGA

DEC. 20, 2018 – 7PM

CASHING IN ON VALUE-ADDED CALVES

BY: DR. DAN THOMSON, KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

WEBINARS WILL BE AVAILABLE LIVE ONLINE AT:

https://zoom.us/j/2293863214

Where Do We Go From Here?

By Lenny Wells UGA Pecan Specialist.  I’ve had a lot of questions recently about the long-term effects of the Hurricane on our pecan trees and the pecan crops we can expect in the next few years. Until recently our state has not had to endure the after-effects of a direct hit by a major hurricane.

The impact of the extensive tree loss we have suffered will certainly be felt in a general drop in production over the next 3-5 years. For growers that lost 30-40% of the trees in some orchards this will be a large hit if their orchards were not overcrowded. The long-term impact will be felt less in orchards that were overcrowded prior to the storm but it may take a few years for production to get back to where it needs to be. Many overcrowded orchards had young trees inter-planted among older trees. Where large older trees were destroyed, these younger trees and the remaining older trees will now have access to more sunlight, soil water, and air flow. As a result, once these trees recover, they will be more productive and the production in that orchard should return to normal or may even improve somewhat from what it was before. Orchards that lost more trees will feel the effects for a much longer period of time. In addition, surviving trees that have been broken up may be more likely to develop heart rot and reduced vigor.

Trees remaining in orchards along the storm’s path will likely take some time to recover. Many of these trees lost much of their fruiting wood in the storm. This will have to re-grow for a year because pecan flowers are generally borne on the new growth that develops from one-year old wood. Since many of the young shoots from the 2018 crop, which could have fruited in 2019, were lost or damaged in many orchards, the trees will likely have to sit out a year to have very much production at all. Another thing to consider is that trees that were salvaged but were severely broken up will likely produce an over-abundance of water sprouts in the coming year. Such growth usually has a weak attachment point and is easily broken by wind once some weight develops on the ends of these sprouts. In certain situations, selective pruning can help alleviate this problem but often as we do this, the remaining shoots are left more exposed to the wind and will break as well, so it may be better in many cases to let mother nature prune these out until the limbs gain some strength.

Remaining trees also likely had a few roots broken as they were rocked back and forth by the wind. It will also take time for these roots to re-grow to support optimal growth and nut production. We will likely even see some trees that made it through the storm initially, begin to decline somewhat over time and possibly even die as a result of damaged root systems.

History can teach us a lot. If we look at what happened to pecan production in Mississippi following Hurricane Camille in 1969, we see that annual in-shell nut production of improved cultivars in Mississippi the decade prior to Camille averaged ≈3400 t per year, but only 1900 t per year the decade after Camille. The 1969 crop was estimated to be ≈4000 t, but dropped to 2800 t because of direct storm damage. In-shell yield the following year was 900 t, probably ≈25% of what it would have been without Camille. The intensity of alternate bearing increased by 258% during the 6 years after the storm. Production in 1970, the year following the storm, was only ≈27% of the average for the previous 5 years. Thus, slow recovery from hurricane-enhanced alternate bearing can be a long-term problem. For comparison, Camille’s winds were 100-65 mph as the storm moved inland. Michael’s winds were 115-100 mph as it moved from Bainbridge to Albany, falling off further from there.

I am frequently asked how all trees in an orchard or region can all get on the same cycle. Well, hurricanes are one of the environmental events that can do this. Since most trees within an orchard or region are similarly damaged from a hurricane, they all begin to bear on roughly the same cycles, resulting in little or no crop one year, followed by a heavy but low quality crop the next.  Such trees and orchards may require 5–10 years to recover sufficiently to once again display relatively stable fruit production.

Most orchards in our affected area carried a heavy crop into the storm, so the trees were already set up to go into an “off-year” in 2019. Our production practices have changed a lot since 1969 and we like to think that with fruit-thinning, hedging, irrigation, spray programs, and fertility, our trees are in much better shape now, so hopefully our drop-off won’t be this severe. But as we can see, the potential is there for our production to be drastically affected. More recent experience with hurricanes in Alabama has shown that trees tend to be off in the year following the storm but come back surprisingly well the year after that.

Given all the young trees we have in this state, all the trees that will be re-planted, and the improved sunlight in orchards that survived the storm, my suspicion is that, on a state-level, we will certainly have an off year in 2019 but I am hopeful that we will see production begin to improve in 2020. While the total volume of pecans Georgia produces going forward will be reduced from what it would have been, I feel that we will return to levels of production in the state similar to what we were seeing prior to our planting boom within 5 years and we will be the top producing state again within that time period. This is a testament to our growers and the stewardship with which they grow the crop.

Hedging has proven to be one of the best management practices you can employ for minimizing hurricane damage. We saw with Tropical Storm Irma that we had a 60% reduction in wind damage in 2017 on hedged vs non-hedged trees. A similar trend was observed for hedged trees under Michael’s wind. Hedged trees can still suffer damage, but because they do not present as large a sail to the wind and do not have such long, hanging branches, the damage is reduced.

Growers who are re-planting should be looking to plant varieties that have better scab resistance and quality. Good options would include Avalon, Zinner, Ellis, Sumner, Kiowa, Caddo, Oconee, Creek, Cape Fear, and Excel. The merits of some of these varieties lie in scab resistance more-so than quality, while in others, quality is the biggest advantage. Some of these have both quality and scab resistance.  Take a good look at your operation and consider which suits your situation best.

I think we have to start considering that we can’t continue growing pecans the way we have been. This marketing season has shown us that we can’t always rely on a good price to pull us out of the hole created by spraying 16 times or more in a season, no matter how large and high quality the nut may be. Ideally, we should be growing varieties that require 8 or preferably, fewer sprays.

A diversity of good quality cultivars with some level of scab resistance and being able to grow good yield with high quality on fewer inputs for a greater profit margin is going to be the key to the future of pecan production in our state. Its not really about how many pounds you can produce in a given year, its being able to produce consistently with the maximum amount of net profit and healthy, non-stressed trees that will remain consistently productive that makes you a good grower. The key to this is cultivar selection, sunlight, and water. Anybody can spend money (if they have it). If you spend more than you make, it doesn’t really matter how many pounds you grow.

Nutritional Considerations Going into Calving

Lawton Stewart, Extension Animal Scientist, UGA
Roger Gates, Whitfield County Agriculture and Natural Resource Agent, UGA Cooperative Extension

This year has proved to be quite an interesting one.  Most producers were able to put up plenty of hay.  However, due to average to above average rainfall, a large proportion of the hay produced was harvested at a later than ideal maturity.  Based on the samples submitted to the UGA Feed and Environmental Water Laboratory, we are dealing with lower quality forage for winter feeding.  For producers with a late winter/spring calving season, this could cause potential issues.  Combining this with a few other observations, here are a few situations we are seeing, and the potential ramifications.

  1. I will restrict feed in the last trimester to decrease calf birth weights.
  2. I need more protein to go with my hay
  3. There is a tendency to under estimate crude protein and over estimate energy.

I will restrict feed in the last trimester to decrease calf birth weights. Is this correct?  Absolutely!  The problem is that is not the only thing it will affect.  Recent research has focused on fetal programming.  Fetal programming is the concept that maternal stimulus or insult during fetal development has long-term effects on the offspring.  One of the most critical aspects of fetal programming involves adequate nutrition, or lack thereof, for the dam.  Research has shown minimal impact on calf birth weights, however restricted nutrition during the last trimester decreased weaning weights, finishing weights, and hot carcass weights.  Additionally, research from Nebraska indicated that heifers from nutritionally restricted cows reached puberty 14 days later than those with proper nutrition.

I need more protein to go with my hay.  Is this correct? Possibly, however protein is only half of the equation.  From April 1 to November 1 of this year, 1,260 bermudagrass hay samples and 291 fescue hay samples were submitted to the UGA lab.  The mean crude protein and energy (TDN) values were 12.1% and 53.4%, respectively for  bermudagrass, and 14.2% and 55.2%, respectively for fescue.  Figure 1 represents the CP and TDN requirements of a brood cow throughout the production year.  As you can see, as cows are entering the  final trimester, their CP requirement is exceeded by the average bermudagrass and fescue sample, but the energy requirement falls short for bermudagrass.  More importantly, the CP requirement is met for peak lactation, but falls tremendously short for TDN.

There is a tendency to under estimate crude protein and over estimate energyThe cheapest money you will ever spend in a beef cattle operation is a forage test, guaranteed!!!  As part of the recent Master Cattlemen’s Program, Dr. Roger Gates offered free forage testing for participants along with a survey for producers asking them to estimate what they thought the quality of the hay was (prior to testing).  This survey resulted in 83% of producers under estimating the protein of their hay compared to the actual.  This would result in the purchasing protein supplement when not needed.  For energy, 50% over estimated energy.  This would result in depriving needed energy during late gestation and early location.  In addition to the previously discussed fetal programming issues, this could also cause delayed breeding.  An actual example of over estimation of energy is illustrated in Figure 2.  The over estimation could likely result in breeding delayed 42 days.  The resulting loss in weaning weight could easily reach 80 lb, resulting in an approximate $120 decrease in value per calf.  Through forage testing, the producer would know to feed 4 lb/d of a supplement such as corn gluten feed.  Based on a 25-cow herd, this could easily return $1,920 above cost.  That is a no-brainer!

Brood cow nutrition is a crucial part of a beef cattle operation.  Between fetal programing and maintaining the proper calving interval, it is imperative for producers to pay close attention to the nutrients available in their forages, and if they meet the requirements of their herd.  If you have any questions on nutrition, hay testing, or developing winter feeding strategies, contact your local Cooperative Extension office (extension.uga.edu, or 1-800-ASK-UGA-1).