- Harvest early (or at least “on-time”) – The longer corn sits in the field in our hot, humid environment with the ever-present chance of rain in the forecast, the worse these molds will get. Encourage growers to harvest as soon as corn is ready to minimize this risk.
- Set fans high – smaller kernels near the tip of the ear tend to have the greatest infection. Our best opportunity to “clean” the grain is to blow small and infected kernels out the back of the combine during harvest.
- Dry and cool grain quickly – A major condition of early harvest (at high moisture) is that growers will need to immediately dry grain down and practice sound grain storage (if they are storing it). Storing grain too wet and too warm will favor fungal growth and greater infection. Author Reagan Noland
Lowndes – Echols Ag News
Dr. Bob Kemerait gives row crop disease update:
DISEASES of PEANUT: White mold and leaf spot aren’t breaking lose in every peanut field in Georgia, BUT hot temperatures, high humidity and frequent rains have created near-perfect conditions for the development, spread and, sometimes, explosion of these diseases. Growers need to stay on a good fungicide program, tightening spray intervals where disease is becoming problematic and/or where there is concern if the crops have received enough drying time after a fungicide was applied.
FOUR COTTON DISEASES: Target spot, areolate mildew, Stemphylium leaf spot, and bacterial blight.
What a season it has become when target spot and areolate mildew are causing greater angst than bacterial blight.
- Bacterial blight is present and is affecting yield in some fields. Susceptible varieties will get this disease and losses may occur. THERE IS NOTHING TO BE DONE ABOUT IT NOW. However, growers should note the varieties where they find it and determine at the end of the season if the disease became severe enough to avoid planting those varieties again.
- Stemphylium leaf spot is present as well. Stemphylium leaf spot is caused by a deficiency in potassium in the plant. Dr. Glen Harris is our soil fertility expert; I believe he would agree that excessive rains could have leached potassium this year. Fungicides ARE NOT a solution for Stemphylium leaf spot; Dr. Harris has the best information about managing potassium.
- Target spot and areolate mildew are present in a number of fields this year.
- At times, target spot and areaolate mildew appear late enough in the season that the defoliation resulting from these diseases does not affect yield and use of fungicides is not needed.
- The question for both diseases is not, “Can we protect the cotton in this field with a fungicides?” but rather, “Should we protect the cotton in this field with a fungicide?”
- We have very very little data on areolate mildew, but from what I do have, I am confident that we can easily control this disease using strobilurin products like Headline or Quadris, or mixed products like Priaxor or Elatus. Proline may work as well but I don’t have data.
- Though we can control areaolate mildew, does it make us any more yield than if we didn’t control it? When conditions are favorable, areolate mildew can rapidly defoliate a cotton crop. If a grower is withing 3-to-4 weeks of defoliating anyway, I would NOT use a fungicide. If the crop still had 4 or more weeks to go, I would consider weather, yield potential, how much disease is in the field and then decide to spray or not.
- If areolate mildew, or target spot, is already well-established in the field (i.e. causing significant defoliation, then there is little hope that a fungicide will help.
- Target spot is a significant concern this year and is widespread. Not every cotton grower in the state needed to spray a fungicide for target spot, but I encourage growers to carefully consider their options.
- Target spot is of particular concern this year because a) the wet and warm conditions are perfect for an explosion of the disease, b) the disease has been found early in many fields, and c) the price of cotton makes protection 100-250 lbs lint/acre attractive.
- I believe the best window of opportunity for managing target spot is from the first week of bloom to the sixth week of bloom.
- A little target spot in a crop (meaning scattered spots on lower leaves and no defoliation) during the first week of bloom and favorable weather IS a concern, as it would be at the third week as well. A “little target spot” at the 4th-6th week of bloom is much less of a concern.
- When a fungicide program begins as early as the first week of bloom because of the disease situation; a second application may be beneficial two-to three weeks later. I don’t envision an application, follow-up or otherwise, after the 6th week.
- It will be quite difficult to control (impossible?) target spot if there is already significant defoliation in the field before an application is made. If 25-30% of the leaves are already gone, a fungicide likely won’t work.
- THE THREE MOST IMPORTANT POINTS TO MANAGE TARGET SPOT, in order of importance, are 1. TIMING 2. COVERAGE 3. SELECTION of FUNGICIDE.
News Release (7/16/2018)
For Immediate Dissemination
Contact: Dr. Michael Toews, UGA Extension Specialist on Grain Storage (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Update on Stored Grain Protectants:
Empty Bin Treatments
Centynal EC. This is a good product for treating empty bins and elevator boots. Note that the active ingredient in Centynal EC, Defense SC and Suspend SC are identical.
Defense SC (labeled for empty bin use only). This is a good product for treating empty bins and elevator boots, but is not labeled for application directly to grain. Note that the active ingredient in Centynal EC, Defense SC and Suspend SC are identical.
Suspend SC. This is a good product for treating empty bins and elevator boots. Note that the active ingredient in Centynal EC, Defense SC and Suspend SC are identical.
Tempo SC (labeled for empty bin use only). Tempo is a good product for treating empty bins and elevator boots, but is not labeled for application directly to grain.
Direct Application to Shelled Corn and Grain Sorghum
Actellic 5E. This product has long been the standard for use on corn and grain sorghum. A full rate will provide protection from weevils for 9-12 months. Reducing the rate will decrease the longevity of the protection. UGA data suggest that Actellic is susceptible to heat degradation in the drier when grain temperatures exceed 120 F.
Centynal EC. Centynal EC is a new formulation that will provide 3 to 6 months of protection from weevils. This material is heat stable in the drier (tested up to 150 F).
Diacon IGR. Diacon IGR is an insect growth regulator that is effective for killing nearly all immature grain moths and beetles, except weevils. The 4 oz per 1000 bu rate is sufficient for tank mixing.
Diacon IGR PLUS. This product is a premix of Centynal EC and Diacon IGR.
Malathion. Although widely used in the past, this product is no longer recommended due to well documented resistance in many stored grain insect populations. Expect malathion to break down in the drier.
Sensat. This product is new to the market, but has been in our evaluation program for several years. Test results show excellent weevil control for up to 12 months. No dryer stability data at this time.
Storcide II. Storcide II is labeled for use on wheat and grain sorghum, but not corn. Protection will degrade with heat and time.
Suspend SC. This product is an older formulation that must be completely suspended before measuring and requires frequent agitation. It provides 3 to 6 months of protection from weevils.
Three-way tankmix (only tested on corn). UGA tests from 2014-2018 showed that a three- way tank mix of Centynal (8.5 oz) plus Diacon IGR (4 oz) plus PBO-8 Synergist (13.5 oz) per
1000 bu will provide 6-9 months of protection from weevils. This is a moderately priced option for growers in markets where other products are unavailable or cost is a limiting factor.
Regardless of the product used, be mindful that grain protectants are not a silver bullet. Shelled corn should be dried to a maximum of 15.5% moisture content before dropping into the storage bin and must be immediately aerated to further reduce moisture content. Chemical applications should only be made to clean grain that will be stored for more than 3 months. Apply protectants at the bottom of the auger in a course spray to maximize coverage as the kernels are moving up
to the top of the bin. Long-term grain storage requires moisture content below 14%, proper housekeeping, use of a spreader when filling bins, and managed aeration.
Additional information is available in the 2018 Georgia Pest Management Handbook or in a recent Extension Publication (http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/I/IPM-0330/IPM-0330.pdf) that was published with colleagues at Auburn University.
China announced plans to implement a 25 percent increase in import tariffs on major agricultural commodities from the United States, which includes soybeans, corn and corn products, wheat, sorghum, cotton, and tobacco and tobacco products. The overall United States export value for these agricultural commodities to China are worth around 44.7 billion dollars (USDA FAS, 2018a).
United States agriculture relies on the export markets to absorb its excess supply in order to support domestic agricultural prices. The United States is the largest exporting country for corn, cotton, and sorghum, and the second largest exporting country for soybean and wheat (USDA FAS, 2018b). China is the largest trading partner for United States sorghum and soybean, and the second largest trading partner for cotton (USDA FAS, 2018a). In 2017, China bought 81.4% of the United States sorghum exports, 57.3% of the United States soybean exports, 16.7% of the United States cotton exports, 5.7% of the United States wheat export, and 1.6% of the United States corn export (Table 1).
The Chinese tariffs, if implemented, will increase the United States agricultural prices faced by the Chinese consumers relative to other countries. Thus, it will reduce demand for United States agricultural commodities by Chinese consumers. As a result, the United States needs to find alternative foreign markets to export its excess supply in order to sustain current prices. China is the largest importing country for sorghum and soybean (USDA FAS, 2018b). Developing alternative markets for these commodities might be difficult. Although much of the soybeans going to the European Union typically come from Brazil, the European Union (import 14.8% of soybean traded globally) can serve as an alternative market for United States soybeans. Globally, it is a very competitive supply market for soybeans. China could diversify its suppliers in the long run and purchase more soybeans from Brazil (export 39.8% of soybean traded globally) and Argentina (export 17.0% of soybean traded globally) (USDA FAS, 2018b). In the short run, there will not be enough capacity for these countries to increase their production acres. China will still need to buy American soybeans and sorghum to satisfy their domestic consumption.
China is the third largest importing country for cotton, importing 13.1% of cotton traded globally in 2017 (USDA FAS, 2018b). If the Chinese tariffs on U.S. cotton are put into effect, it might provide a near term opportunity for global cotton suppliers like India, Australia, and Brazil to supply more cotton to China. However, the longer term situation could involve more of a re-routing of U.S. exports to other cotton importing countries, like Vietnam, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, and India, than a reduction in U.S. cotton production. Recent history of the change in China’s internal cotton policy has shown that the disruptions of Chinese raw cotton imports stimulates the importing of duty free yarn from countries like Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Indian subcontinent (J.R.C. Robinson, personal communication, April 2018; Shurley, 2018).
A study conducted at Purdue University found that the prices of United States soybeans would fall by 2 and 5% under the 10 and 30 percent tariff, respectively (Pack, 2018). Similar effects of price reduction are expected to the other agricultural commodities. The tariff impact on the sorghum price is expected to be larger than the impact on the soybean price, while the impact on the cotton price is expected to be smaller than the impact on the soybean price.
The potential 25 percent increment in tariff for corn, cotton, sorghum, soybeans, and wheat could have a negative impact to Georgia’s agricultural industry. Cotton is the largest crop produced in Georgia with more than 1.27 million acres harvested last year, and contributes $794 million to Georgia’s economy (Table 2). Georgia produced 10.6% (2.25 million bales) of the total United States cotton production in 2017, and is the second largest cotton producing state after Texas. It is also the second largest cotton export state after Texas. Last year, Georgia exported $441 million of cotton, of which $26 million of cotton was exported to China (USDA FAS, 2018a). The Chinese tariffs will have a direct impact on the cotton exported from Georgia because tariffs will impact the entire United States cotton market and the prices received by every United States cotton farmer. It will also have an indirect impact through the prices received by Georgia cotton farmers. Even though Georgia does not export corn, sorghum, soybean, and wheat directly to China, the lower price of these commodities due to Chinese tariffs would impact Georgia farmers.
Pack, D. (Producer). (2018). Study: U.S. soybean production, exports would fall if China imposes tariffs. Purdue University Agriculture News. Retrieved from https://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/releases/2018/Q1/study-u.s.-soybean-production,-exports-would-fall-if-china-imposes-tariffs.html
Shurley, D. (2018). Shurley on Cotton: More Tariff Talk. Retrieved from http://www.cottongrower.com/market-analysis/shurley-on-cotton-more-tariff-talk/
USDA FAS. (2018a). Global Agricultural Trade System Online Dataset. Retrieved from: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/gats/default.aspx
USDA FAS. (2018b). Production, Supply and Distribution Database. Retrieved April 25, 2018 https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/app/index.html#/app/advQueryVegetables Industry
We will be having our last production meeting on March 8th at noon. Dr. Eric Prostko, extension weed specialist, will be speaking about row crop weed control. Please call the office to RSVP.
Stink bugs are the main pest to be scouting for right now. Also be looking out for spider mites and whiteflies. These insects are important when deciding on an insecticide to spray. A good phone app to help with insecticide choice is the GA Cotton Insect Advisor App. Bacterial blight has been reported in some counties.
The main diseases to be looking out for are white mold and peanut rust.
Below is a guide to soybean scouting that has ways to identify caterpillars in soybeans and also thresholds for foliage and pod feeders.
Please feel free to call the office with any questions.