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Big Rain and Herbicides – (Prostko)

The Big Rain and Herbicides (Prostko)

Most of Georgia received a significant rainfall event on April 24, 2021 (Figure 1).  Some areas received more than than 6″.  Consequently, my phone has been ringing off the hook about the potential effects of this precipitation event on herbicides.  Here are a few thoughts:

1) The two biggest herbicide concerns with heavy rainfall events such as this are runoff and leaching.  

2) If a field received enough rainfall to physically move the soil from the field, herbicides were likely moved with it.  In this scenario, residual weed control would be reduced.  Tough luck here and nobody can prevent/predict an Act of God!!!

3) Herbicide leaching is a complicated interaction of many factors including soil type, OM, and certain chemical properties (i.e. water solubility and soil adsorption).  Very generally, herbicides with higher water solubility and lower soil adsorption characteristics are more likely to leach from the soil profile.  Check out Table 1 for a list of these properties. Note that dicamba has a very high water solubility and very low soil adsorption so it is very prone to leaching.  Although paraquat and glyphosate are very water soluble, they are strongly adsorbed to soils.

4) Most of the questions that I have been getting have had to do with Prowl (pendimethalin).  You will note in Table 1 that Prowl is not very soluble in water and is strongly adsorbed to soils.  Thus, it is less likely to leach in comparison to other herbicides so it should still be around in most situations.  

5) If a grower has already applied Prowl (on peanut land) and has observed significant soil movement/washing, I would suggest that he/she consider adding an additional 16 oz/A of Prowl in combination with Valor immediately after planting (i.e. behind the press wheel).  I would also suggest this in peanut fields where prepared beds must be reworked/remade/ refreshed before planting.

Table 1.  Herbicide Water Solubility and Soil Adsorption Properties for Common Herbicides Used in Georgia.

Trade NameCommon NameWater Solubility (ppm)Soil Adsorption (Koc)
Aatrexatrazine33100
Callistomesotrione220014-390
Dual Magnums-metolachlor488200
Engenia/Xtendimaxdicamba45002
Gramoxoneparaquat620,0001,000,000
Impacttopramezone0.6922-172
Laudistembotrione28.366
Libertyglufosinate1,370,000100
Prowlpendimethalin0.27517,200
Reflexfomesafen5060
Roundup (IPA Salt)glyphosate900,00024,000
Sonalanethalfluralin0.35,000
Tricormetribuzin110060
Valorflumioxazin1.79557
Ziduapyroxasulfone3.4957-114