Here is a lengthy (67 pages!) web site which provides a thorough background on the science of climate, from Andrew Revkin. He describes it as “a primer based on decades of reports from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, IPCC and other peer-reviewed lit.” You can view the web site at https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/3680541-Climate101.html.
You might also be interested in this somewhat shorter (14 pages) web resource from the American Association for the Advancement of Science at http://resources.aaas.org/sites/default/files/resources/2017-02/whatweknow_report_climate.pdf and this shorter article in Popular Science here.
I also like this blog post by television meteorologist Don Paul from Buffalo NY talking about cherry-picking of research by scientists on both sides of the global warming debate: http://buffalonews.com/2017/04/26/paradoxes-climate-change/.