|In this issue: November 12, 2020 |
Monthly Climate Summary
Cotton Nematode Samples
Nematode Sample Guideline
Critical Thinking points for Wild Radish Control
Current Situation: According to the Weekly Crop Progress report, the cotton and peanut harvest is behind in Georgia. In Colquitt County, growers have harvested about 90% of the peanut crop and 50% of the cotton crop. The weather has cooperated for the establishment of winter grazing. The crop progress for week ending November 8, 2020 is below.
We have been busy at the Extension office harvesting a cotton variety trial, cotton nematode control demonstration and a peanut demonstration evaluating various in furrow and foliar treatments. These projects would not be possible without the support of local growers and industry..
October 2020 was near average in temperature and precipitation for the US
Nov 8, 2020 | Written by Pam Knox
The latest monthly climate summary for the lower 48 states was released this week. It shows that for the region as a whole, the temperature was in the middle third of all years since 1895, and the precipitation was exactly average. There was quite a bit of variability across the US, however. The Southeast was much warmer than normal, and most of it was also wetter than normal, although there were some dry spots. You can read the press release at https://www.noaa.gov/news/us-endured-record-wildfires-historic-hurricanes-in-october and the full report at https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/news/national-climate-202010. READ MORE
Cotton Nematode Samples
With cotton harvest having started, it is time to take cotton nematode samples. In order to have a good representation of nematode populations within a field, predictive nematode samples should be taken in late fall usually just after cotton has been harvested. It is better to take samples prior to harvest, but most growers find it easier to sample after the cotton stalks are mowed. However, do not wait too long after harvest to sample because nematode populations will begin to decline once their food source is removed.
Rootknot nematode damage from a Colquitt County Cotton Variety Trial, October 2020
Guidelines for Nematode Sample
Each soil sample should represent no more than a 20-acre field or section of a field. The smaller the field area you sample, the more accurate your results will be. In each section of the field take 12 to 15 cores. Samples should be taken 8 inches deep within the plant root zone. Place these in a bucket and thoroughly mix the sample being sure to break up any clumps. You should have approximately one quart of soil in the sample that you send off. The soil should be transferred into a labeled plastic bag with the sampling date for nematode assay. The sample will need to be put in a plastic zip-lock bag, it should be kept cool (refrigerated if possible) and not be allowed to dry out. Samples should not sit in a hot vehicle or even in direct sunlight because this can kill any nematodes in the sample and lead to inaccurate results.
Avoid sampling fields that are too wet or too dry. A good rule of thumb is that it is best to sample soil that would be about right for good seed germination.
Samples should be taken in a random manner throughout the area of the field being sampled. Commonly used patterns included modified “X’s” or “Z’s” that cover the entire area. Samples should include all areas of the field, not just poor areas that show signs of nematode damage. Submit samples to the laboratory quickly.
Reference: UGA extension Bulletin “Georgia Cotton Nematode and Management Considerations”
Critical Thinking Points for Wild Radish Control For normal developing wheat, postemergence ryegrass herbicides should be applied around Christmas. Harmony Extra Total Sol rate ranges from 0.45 to 0.9 oz/A; 0.75 oz/A ideal usually. Other formulations exist. 2,4-D is better than MCPA on larger weeds but MCPA poses less crop injury potential, so be timely and use MCPA. MCPA offers 2 to 3X more residual radish control when compared to Quelex or 2,4-D (only about 10 days though).
I had a question or two about storing pecans. Below is information about this subject from Dr. Lenny Wells, UGA Pecan Specialist. Source: UGA Pecan Blog Jan 2018. The 2 key factors affecting storage of pecans are moisture and temperature.
Drying Large lots of nuts should be dried with a mechanical drier, usually in harvest wagons designed for this purpose. Heated air is forced up through the trailer, drying the pecans from bottom to top. Normal mechanical drying temperature is about 95 degrees (100 or more will negatively affect the kernels). Relative humidity of the drier air should remain below 60%. Air flow should be 90 cubic feet per minute (cfm) per sq. ft. of drying area. Drying time will depend on the level of moisture
For smaller quantities of nuts for which mechanical drying is not possible:
Pecans should be brought to a moisture level of about 4.5% as soon as practical after harvest. When small quantities (100 pounds or less) of fully mature, freshly harvested, in-shell nuts are stored in woven sacks, in a well ventilated building, they will dry and cure naturally in about 2 weeks when the weather is dry (60% or less relative humidity).
When nuts are harvested early in the harvest season or have a moisture of 8% or more, or when the relative air humidity is 80% or higher for several days, or when no proper storage area is available, mechanical drying is preferred.
If moisture content of the nuts is 5-6%, 100 lb bags of in-shell nuts can be spread on dry floors in a room in which dry air (60% or less relative humidity) is rapidly circulated over the bags for about 12 hrs. When using this method the bags should be turned about every 3-4 hrs.
Storage: Pecans should be stored at 4.5% moisture and 32-34 degrees F at 65% relative humidity. In-shell nuts generally decline in quality more slowly than shelled nuts. In shell and shelled nuts stored under these conditions may remain acceptable for up to 3 years, although quality may suffer somewhat after 18 months. Temperatures below 32 degrees may protect pecans for as much as 3 years; however, they will become more dry and brittle the longer they are kept at freezing temperatures. Bear in mind that pecans may absorb flavors and odors from other stored materials.
Thank you for your time please let me know if you have any questions or concerns
Colquitt County Extension Coordinator